1. Looking at the Glossary, “medium” refers to the material an artist uses to create their work.
2. When Animal Facing Left was created, the artist might have asked him or herself what was to be the subject of his or her art and how shall he or she represent it.
3. a. Animal Facing Left was found in the Apollo 11 Cave in Namibia.
b. The artwork was created in approximately 23,000 B.C.E.
c. The artwork was created using charcoal and is in size.
d. Animal Facing Left currently dwells in the State Museum of Namibia, Windhoek.
4. The editor of the textbook believes the artwork to represent an animal whose key features, such as its head, tail, legs, and body, remain distinctively clear to the viewer.
1. Insight into the history of art can only be accomplished through studying the history of mankind. History can show the circumstances behind an artwork’s creation and allow us the possibility to understand why a piece was made and what went into making that piece.
2. Both pieces of artwork on page 17 took skill. No matter how simple a piece of art might seem, it takes skill to be able to create something that is learned and perfected through practice and technique.
3. a. When identifying the age of an art piece, there are four ways one can search for evidence of its date. These methods include examining physical evidence, documentary evidence, internal evidence, and stylistic evidence.
b. During the career of an artist, it is always possible for him or her to experience dramatic changes in style. Many artists, for example, have gone through such major style changes throughout their life that their work is later placed into distinctive style periods.
c. In numerous cases, a piece of art was created due to a paid commission by someone known as a “patron.” Patrons will pay artists for their work and can often play a significant role in what the artist produces.
1. A line can be described as the path a point makes through space.
2. a. There are only three colors which are considered primary colors and those are red, blue, and yellow. They are considered primary because they cannot be created via mixing other colors together.
b. Secondary colors result from the mixing of primary colors. Orange, purple, and green are examples of secondary colors.
c. Tertiary colors are created whenever primary colors and secondary colors are mixed.
d. A group of three colors, all located next to each other on a color wheel, are known as analogous colors. Blue, blue-violet, and violet are examples of analogous colors.
e. Whenever two colors are located directly across from each other on the color wheel, those two colors are known as complementary colors. Blue-green and red-orange are examples of complementary colors for they are on opposite sides of the color wheel and they both absorb the colors one another reflects.
3. An example of two complementary colors are red and green.
4. a. In The Night Café, Vincent Van Gogh used the complementary colors of red and green and in The Starry Night, he used blue and yellow.
b. When creating a linear perspective, vanishing points draw the viewer’s attention to the point by which the lines intersect
6. Hierarchy of scale occurs whenever an artist deliberately creates abnormal proportions to emphasize importance.
7. Carving is an example of a subtractive process.
8. “model” ; “armature”
9. In bronze casting, other than bronze, three media used are wood, wax, and ceramic material.
10. Free standing sculptures are sculptures that stand independently.
11. A high relief sculpture largely protrudes from its background while a low relief sculpture only slightly protrudes.
1. The true meaning behind cave paintings remains a mystery. No one will ever be able to know why these paintings were made or what importance they carried to be people who created them. No written records exist that could provide us with those details.
2. In modern times, desirable features are often exaggerated through methods such as photoshop where an individual’s body can be edited to appear differently from what his or her body might actually look like. This allows people seen on TV and in ads to exhibit features deemed more attractive to the present culture. Many people have also taken to permanently changing their appearance through means such as plastic surgery or taking medication where certain parts of their body can be made bigger or smaller.
3. Venus of Willendorf stands ” tall and has many exaggerated features.
4. In ancient cave paintings, animals are seen more often than humans and when humans are painted, women appear more often than men.
Chapter 1: Neolithic Art
1. As communities began to develop through Anatolia and Mesopotamia, artistic practices such as pottery, weaving, and metalwork had started to take root.
2. As agriculture grew, walls like the ones seen at Jericho began to be built to protect communities and their crops from threatening nomads.
3. The plastered skulls might have served as part of a ritual for their makers. It is believed that the skulls were used as a bridge between the living and the dead and were honored in hopes of good fortune.
4. The general size of the statues found at Ain Ghazal were around three feet tall.
5. In Paleolithic cave paintings, animals were most common.
6. Painters would use brushes to apply pigments at Catal Hoyuk.
Chapter 1: Western Europe
1. Megaliths are extremely large stones that have been roughly cut.
2. A tumulus is a burial mound which is commonly found throughout Western Europe.
3. In corbel vaulting, the stones form a dome shape through each stone’s weight countering the weight of the stones around it.
4. Post and lintel construction is used whenever a horizontal beam is supported by two stones standing upright,
5. A henge occurs whenever large stones are formulated into a circle.
6. The exact location where the sun rises during the summer solstice is indicated by the heel stone.