Born to a Father Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf Senior and Mother Ruth Bowman
Schwarzkopf in Trenton, New Jersey Norman
Schwarzkopf Jr was well known
American military leader who headed the international coalition that
liberated Kuwait from Iraqi invasion forces during the 1991 Persian Gulf War. His
masterclass planning and execution of Desert Shield and Desert Storm are
credited with freeing Kuwait with a minimum number of coalition deaths (less
than 200), in an extraordinarily brief (100 hour) ground war. General
Schwarzkopf’s career in the U.S. Army stretched from 1956 to 1991. He was a highly-decorated officer who served two tours of duty in
Vietnam (1965-66, 1969-70), and was deputy task force commander of the 1983
U.S. invasion of Grenada following a Cuban-backed coup on that Caribbean island
nation. On November 18th, 1988 he became a four-star general and was appointed as
commander of the U.S. Central Command, which included military operations in
the Middle East.
His dedication towards
the service well decorated by numerous
prestigious awards upon him following the successful outcome of the war.
“On July 3, 1991, President Bush awarded he, the Presidential Medal of
Freedom.” The honors came not only from the United States, but grateful
nations around the world lined up to confer some of their highest honors on
General Schwarzkopf. Finally, he said good bye to his life inning at Florida in December
The aim of this leadership
analysis is to gain the knowledge on Norman Schwarzkopf
studying, analysing and comparing while making recommendations for the
applicability of leadership styles for the present day context.
outline of the leader
Childhood and Early Life. Herbert
Norman Schwarzkopf Junior was born on 22 August 1934 in Trenton, New Jersey. His
father was a graduate of the United States Military Academy and veteran of
World War I. His mother was a housewife from West Virginia who was distantly
related to Thomas Jefferson. The senior Schwarzkopf later became the Superintendent
of the New Jersey State Police, where he served as a lead investigator on the
1932 Lindbergh baby kidnapping case. In January 1952, the younger Schwarzkopf’s
birth certificate was amended to make his name “H. Norman
Schwarzkopf”, reportedly because his father detested his first name. General
Schwarzkopf had two older sisters, Ruth Ann and Sally Joan. Norman Schwarzkopf
was described by childhood friends as active and assertive, protective of his
sisters and a skilled athlete. He spent his childhood attached very much to his
father, who subsequently became the narrator for the Gang Busters radio
program. When Norman Schwarzkopf was eight years old, his father returned to
the military amid World War II. With his absence it made home life difficult,
particularly for his wife. As a 10-year-old cadet at Bordentown Military
Institute, near Trenton, he posed for his official photograph wearing a stern
expression because as he said afterwards “Someday when I become a general,
I want people to know that I’m serious.”
In 1946, when Norman Schwarzkopf was 12, he moved with his father to
Tehran, Iran. In Iran, he learned shooting, horseback riding, and hunting.
Schwarzkopf developed a lifelong interest in Middle Eastern culture. The family
moved to Geneva, Switzerland, in 1947, following a new military assignment for
Herbert Schwarzkopf. The senior Schwarzkopf visited Italy, Heidelberg,
Frankfurt, and Berlin, Germany during his military duties, and the younger
Schwarzkopf accompanied him. By 1951 he had returned to Iran briefly before
returning to the United States. Herbert Schwarzkopf died in 1958. From a young
age, Norman wanted to be a military officer, following his father’s example.
He attended the
Community High School in Tehran, later the International School of Geneva, and
briefly Frankfurt American High School, in Frankfurt, Germany (1948–49), and
Heidelberg American High School, in Heidelberg, Germany (1949–50). He
eventually graduated from Valley Forge Military Academy. He was also a member
of Mensa. Schwarzkopf graduated valedictorian out of his class of 150, and he
had the highest IQ which is 168.Schwarzkopf then attended the United States
Military Academy, where he played football, wrestled, sang and conducted the
West Point Chapel choir. His large frame, 6 feet 3 inches in height and
weighing 240 pounds, was advantageous in athletics. In his plebe year he was
given the nickname “Schwarzie,”. He has gained certain military
respect among the subordinates. He graduated 43rd of 480 in the class of 1956
with a Bachelor of Engineering degree. Norman earned a Masters of Engineering
at the University of Southern California.
is very loyal and obedient character from his early child hood. And also he is
very assertive and protective to his sisters. Further not only those but also
he is a very active athlete. These qualities are well justified by his child
hood friends. More over little Norman Herbert Schwarzkopf is very much attached
to his father. This fact given the chance to him to travel many countries along
with his father because of his military attachments. Furthermore he is very
keen to acquire new knowledge in every aspect. As a result of that he learnt shooting,
horseback riding, and hunting at the age of 12 years. Moreover he played on the football and
wrestling teams. He was also a member of the chapel choir in his military
was accepted into the U.S. Military Academy at West Point and was commissioned
as a second lieutenant in the United States Army in 1956. His first assignment
was as platoon leader, later executive officer, 2nd Airborne Battle Group,
187th Airborne Infantry Regiment, and 101st Airborne Division at Fort Campbell,
Kentucky. After a number of initial training programs, Schwarzkopf interrupted
a stint as an academy teacher, and served in the Vietnam War first as an
adviser to the South Vietnamese Army and later as a battalion commander. Where
he emerge as a mentor to the young generation of cadets. Schwarzkopf was highly
decorated in Vietnam, being awarded three Silver Star Medals, two Purple
Hearts, and the Legion of Merit. Rising through the ranks after the conflict,
he later commanded the U.S. 24th Infantry Division and was one of the
commanders of the Invasion of Grenada in 1983.
command of United States Central Command in 1988, Schwarzkopf was called on to
respond to the Invasion of Kuwait in 1990 by the forces of Iraq under Saddam
Hussein. Initially tasked with defending Saudi Arabia from Iraqi aggression,
Schwarzkopf’s command eventually grew to an international force of over 750,000
troops. After diplomatic relations broke down, he planned and led Operation
Desert Storm an extended air campaign followed by a highly successful 100-hour
ground offensive which destroyed the Iraqi Army and liberated Kuwait in early
1991. Where he highly regarded for these exploits, Schwarzkopf became a
national hero and was presented with many military honors for what historians
termed one of the most successful campaigns in U.S. military history. Schwarzkopf retired shortly after the end of the war
and undertook a number of philanthropic ventures, only occasionally stepping
into the political spotlight before his death from complications of pneumonia
in late 2012 at the age of 78 years.
areas and major work. In
1983 he was suddenly appoint as deputy commander for the Invasion of Grenada.
At that time he had very little to say that because of his last minute
appointment. Nevertheless he took the challenge and guided the mission while on
board in the USS Guam which is an aircraft carrier with great difficulties from
neighbouring branches itself. The operation is merely success that because of
the poor communication between different branches in the service. The operation
given him a learning curve where he later push for several policies to joint
commanders operations. 1988 when he named as commander of the United
States central Command.
At that time he was well known among the others as a strategic leader and a commander
who thinks more diplomacy when it comes to the war. And also a hard-driving military
commander with a strong temper. He was assigned to several missions which gives
very successful end results. Most of them are operations in Middle East. That
is all because of he is a great leader and he had his child hood experience in
he is the master piece for Gulf war. When Iraqi Army invades Kuwait the west
thoughts the next movement will be to invade Saudi Arabia in searching of Oil.
At that point US Troops were deployed to Saudi Arabia under the command of General Norman
Schwarzkopf. He used very aggressive military plans such direct over helm to
opponent which initially got criticise by the Washington as such
uncreative. But later identified the master class which relays on him.
Successfully operated mission is that the Operation desert storm and desert
shield. While being deployed at Saudi Arabia with preparations works carrying
out simultaneously to defend the Saudi Arabia with possible invade he receives
the order from pentagon to avoid the Iraqis invasion to Kuwait. More
importantly this mission was planned by him addressing both air campaign and
ground campaign. This mission involved heavy air campaign by achieving air superiority and
ground campaign by destroying possible supply chain to enemy strong holds. As
the build up continued, Schwarzkopf was occupied with planning an offensive
operation against the Iraqi units along the border, sometimes working 18-hour
days in planning, assisted by a close group of aides. This is a mission he
planned with based on overwhelming force and strong
infantry attacks supported by artillery and armour and also with the heavy air
power. His strategically thinking pattern as military leader proven with the
result of this war by, within 42 days, his force had destroyed 42 of 50 Iraqi
Army divisions and sent out the Saddam Husain Men’s out of the Kuwait.
Awards & Achievements. He was
awarded several medals such Defense Distinguished Service Medal, Army
Distinguished Service Medal, Navy Distinguished Service Medal, Air Force
Distinguished Service Medal, Coast Guard Distinguished Service Medal, Silver
Star, Defence Superior Service Medal, Legion of Merit, Distinguished Flying
Cross, Bronze Star Medal, Purple Heart, Presidential Medal of Freedom,
Congressional Gold Medal and Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath
(Honorary) in recognition of his battlefield bravery.
Personal Life & Legacy. General Schwarzkopf maintained an active
schedule of speaking engagements. In later years, he used his fame to raise
public awareness of prostate cancer. In retirement, he enjoyed hunting, fishing
and skeet shooting. He was a serious music lover whose tastes ran from grand
opera to country and western. Norman and Brenda Schwarzkopf had three children:
Cynthia, Jessica and Christian. General Schwarzkopf died of complications of
pneumonia in Tampa, Florida at the age of 78.
analysis of the leadership style
The Leadership style
of the General
Schwarzkopf was strategic leadership style. He always made the final
decisions by considering timely suited strategic ideas. Each and every battle
which he was commanded, he made the plan effectively and efficiently by
engaging strategic thinking pattern with strategic mind. As a result, superiors
tend to have high satisfaction, enthusiasm and high morale. However, when it is
required he made his own effective decision making style, when it is needed to
make a quick decision.
disadvantages in today’s environment
need strong and capable strategic leaders who can motivate, coach, and inspire
people to do strategic work that will help ensure the organization’s success over the
long term in battles. Subordinates at all levels in the military organization
look to their leaders for direction and clues about how the future will unfold
and how they can add distinctive value to the organization and ensure its
success specially when it comes to the battle field. Below
are some specific advantages of strategic leadership.
c. Always Prepared. General Schwarzkopf was
always prepared, regardless of how much work load over him. He generally draws
attention to on the way that a military man should each time expect the unforeseen.
When we looking his life we can see it was not stream in exceptionally smooth
way. Be that as it may, he arranged to confront any sort of circumstance. Some
time he needs to do air mission in awful atmosphere condition. In any case, he
ready to deal with all hash condition by being a prepared person. At the
Operation Gulf war he sometimes works for 18 hours continuously to prepare the
war plans. The personality of military leaders, is critical for success. Their
exemplary attitudes, abilities and performance shape the units subordinate to
d. Set high standards. Too often we don’t ask
enough from people. At one point in Schwarzkopf’s career, he was placed in
charge of helicopter maintenance. He asked how much of the fleet was able to
fly on any given day. The answer was 75%. “People didn’t come in at 74 or
76, but always at 75, because that was the standard that had been set for them.
I said, ‘I don’t know anything about helicopter maintenance, but I’m
establishing a new standard: 85%.’ ” Sure enough, within a short time 85%
of the fleet was available on any given day.
e. Exemplary Behaviour. General Schwarzkopf trusted
that initiative essentially does not mean offering requests to the
subordinates. He guided from the front making his men acknowledged what they
are truly battling for. He visited the fight fronts, regiments and legions as
regularly as could be allowed and satisfied what is required from him by his
men and the country.
f. Positive Thinking
Schwarzkopf made it his business to be a positive,
happy, and playful. He knew confidence, similar to cynicism, was infectious. By
staying positive and endeavouring to “mirror the bright assurance of
triumph” he trusted he could help individual and organization confidence.
Military leaders should not glare, whimper, whine or mope. They should exhibit
that they are there for the bigger hierarchical mission and work to develop a
feeling of hopefulness. Sullen may conducts negative effect that can be
possibly induced hierarchical disquietude. Resemble and ensure your
peculiarities and address an uplifting positive thinking ability.
There are some
disadvantages of Strategic Leadership can be seen with this leadership.
Can Appear Uncertain. Strategic leadership can sometimes come
across as being indecisive. In certain situations, especially during a crisis,
leaders must be very directive and Strategic leaders do not function well in an
authoritarian role. In the midst of a crisis, no time is usually available to think
well and act.
PERFORMANCE VS. FOLLOWERS’ SATISFACTION
Because of the
continuous visits he made to see his men, General Schwarzkopf knew that it was so testing to take up the
tasks given. He was caring who esteemed the lives of his subordinate’s lives
than his own triumphant the hearts and worries of them consequently. He was a
man of his words and frequently depicted in the matter of why the requests were
given and what was behind them.
Victories would have
been only a fantasy notwithstanding the unwaveringness the men had for him.
They were ready to give up realizing that somebody is there to take care of
them if any given hard situation. The leadership characters of Schwarzkopf were filled his
subordinates while fulfilling them on what they battled for.
LESSONS LEARNED AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Schwarzkopf is one of genius military leader.
His views on preparing infrastructure and cutting down the supply chain were
later proved to be correct during the Operation desert shield. To weaken the supply,
He ordered to destroy all the key strong holds in Iraq along with cut down the
supply chain to enemy force. He always applies to principles of war. Further he
tries to improve the soldiers’ welfare conditions, such as, better food, shelter,
and more leaves to visit their families. Therefore he is one of the example
characters who show how to treat and care of subordinates to enhance their
moral and performances. That was the secret behind his successful military
life. It is one of good example for today’s military leaders also.
The Military Officers
should possess a sound knowledge on great leaders and their leadership
skills. By studding General Schwarzkopf leadership behaviours and co-value
they can understand applicability of his
leadership styles for the present day context which will assist them to be
leaders by building up individual’s leadership skills in their professional
carrier in the future. As such, it is
recommended all military officers to study the General Schwarzkopf’s behaviour.
Leaders are not simply born but they are trained in to what is expected
from them. Being in the military it is inevitable to mention that military
personnel are to be trained as per a leadership model. Reading and understanding
the attributes of great leaders in the history obviously make it easy to
inculcate the war culture.
General Schwarzkopf is transcendent
identity, an uncommon character and leader of one out of an era. The initiative
qualities that he had are very noteworthy and effectively unmatchable. He
demonstrated the way that a man can turn into a military leader with a decent
heart yet taking care of business from his subordinates as though they were
bound to do as such. The admiration he transferred on individuals and the
regard that he had for his nation are completely promising for us being in the
military. It is unavoidable to say that it was an eye opener and had and
enthusiastic connection with him and his traits while setting up this achievements.
The duty of the
military superior is characterized by issuing orders and leading people, not by
administrating or supervising. The latter may include the former but at the
same time goes beyond it. Schwarzkopf
as a military superior had clearly more far-reaching powers and
authorities than their counterparts in civilian organizations. Non-compliance
with an order, for instance, is considered disobedience and will at least
result in a disciplinary action being taken. The integration into a strict hierarchy,
General Schwarzkopf’s extensive
authority, which reaches as far as the subordinate’s leisure time and personal
life, and the high degree of control make the military resemble which
everything referred to as a total institution.