1 pollution also prevents 80% of Americans from ever

1 out of every 3 people in the world look up and see a starless sky at night,  according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA) (n.d., para. 1).  This is due to light pollution (NOAA, n.d., para. 2).  Light pollution also prevents 80% of Americans from ever seeing stars (NOAA, n.d., para. 1).  Is there a solution? One way to fix the problem is using different spectrum lights instead of the ones that are being used now (Flagstaff Dark Skies Coalition, n.d., para. 1).  Can people reduce the amount of light pollution caused by the their current lighting choice by switching to different light spectrum?There are 5 major types of light pollution(Vandernoot, n.d., para. 17).  The first one is Glare, or excessive brightness unneeded for humans to see that is entering our eyes, sometimes from a light source directly (Vandernoot, n.d., para. 20; International Dark-Sky AssociationIDA, n.d., para. 3; The Astronomical Society of Rowan County, n.d., para. 5).  The second type of light pollution is Skyglow, which is light that is reflected from the atmosphere (IDA, n.d., para. 3; Vandernoot, n.d., para. 18; NOAO, n.d., para. 9).  Number 3 is Light trespass, which is light that enters someone’s property and is unwanted, such as light preventing someone from sleeping (Vandernoot, n.d., para. 19; The Astronomical Society of Rowan County, n.d., para. 3; NOAO, n.d., para. 9).  The fourth is clutter, where there is too many light sources in a single location.  This causes the area to appear confusing (The Astronomical Society of Rowan County, n.d., para. 4; IDA, n.d., para. 3).  The last major light pollution type is uplight.  This is light that escapes upward, and contributes to skyglow (Vandernoot, n.d., para. 21).  There are many types of light pollution, each is harmful in its own way.Light pollution has many problems in and around nature.  Light Pollution costs a total of around 2 billion dollars ($2,000,000,000) in wasted energy each year in the US alone (The Astronomical Society of Rowan County, n.d., para. 6; Vandernoot, n.d., para. 2; NOAO, n.d., para. 6).  Light pollution disrupts the day-night cycle.  This lowers levels of melatonin, which is suspected to allow infections to remain contagious for longer periods of time (IDA, n.d., para. 9; NOAO, n.d., para. 5; Penniski, 2018, para. 8).  Light pollution creates an orange glow above cities, too.  This glow blocks stars (IOP Institute Of Physics, n.d., para. 2; “Light Pollution”, n.d., para. 2; Crawford T., Metaxa M., & Percy, J., 1998, pg. 1).  Lastly, light pollution disrupts animals, often killing them, such as sea turtles that lay their eggs on the beach whose hatchlings get confused by city lights (NOAA, n.d., para. 9).  Light pollution is caused by us, and we get the problems associated with it, by using “bad” (light-pollution-causing) light sources.There are many types of bad light sources, these are 5 of them.  (Crawford T. et al.,1998, pg. 2).  Lights that are made of translucent balls are bad because they radiate light in all directions (Crawford T. et al.,1998, pg. 2).  Signs Lit from the bottom mostly bounce light off of the sign or send it straight (Crawford T. et al.,1998, pg. 2).  Mercury-Vapor lamps waste energy and cause a lot of glare, and are white-blue, which is bad (Crawford T. et al.,1998, pg. 2; Flagstaff Dark Skies Coalition, n.d., para 1).  Badly aimed lights can cause light trespass (Crawford T. et al.,1998, pg. 2).  Non-directional fixtures cause glare and send light in all directions, including up (Crawford T. et al.,1998, pg. 2).  These are the lights that cause the most light pollution, but there are some ways to fix the problem.There are some solutions to light pollution that currently exist, and some things to consider when designing one.  Spectrum is something to consider.  Good light sources contain little blue or blue-green and a lot of yellow.  (see appendix I for some examples).  The amount of blue is measured in Correlated Color Temperature (CCT), or percent blue (Flagstaff Dark Skies Coalition, n.d., para 4).  Another solution is to reduce the amount of light that we are using (Flagstaff Dark Skies Coalition, n.d., para 4; “Light Pollution”, n.d., para. 6; NOAO, n.d., para. 7).  A third solution is to send light in the correct direction.  This reduces light trespass and uplight (“Light Pollution”, n.d., para. 6).  The fourth is to shield lights.  This will reduce glare (NOAO, n.d., para. 7; Flagstaff Dark-Skies Coalition, n.d., para 4).  People already have developed some ways (above) to stop light pollution from occuring.This paper researched about light pollution and if people can change the spectrum of their lights to change the amount of light pollution.  There are 5 types of light pollution to cover.  Each type has many problems.  It is easy to find the most light pollution causing lights, but there are ways to fix this problem.  This research will be used to conduct an experiment that will determine the best way to change the spectrum of lights.

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