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In the case study of State v. Badger, they (court) found itself dealing with the issue of whether a person who is diagnosed with dissociate identity disorder can really be on trial when the non-dominant personality committed the crime and how that would all pan out. The case with Mr. Badger was that he was arrested for attempted burglary and after his arrest he was sentenced to a correctional institution and there they did some research on Mr. Badger and found out he had suffered from DID and was diagnosed when he was 17. His diagnosed had stated Christopher Badger suffers from eight different personalities. The personality that had committed the robbery was a non-dominant personality by the name of Philip. Philip had complete recollection of the incident at hand but on the other hand Christopher the dominant personality had no recollection of the crime. The authorities and the court took around eleven months to decide exactly how to pursue this case and during this time Christopher began to complain about how he is being held up in the judicial system and he is losing valuable lifetime he could be out in society living his life. Later during the trial, the therapist was juggling a difficult situation because he did not know with other personalities would become present during the court proceeding in front of the judge. After a couple more, months the they decided to move forward with the trial and had Mr. Badger in front of the judge and jury. The judge later ruled to the that Mr. Badger’s attorney could explain to him what is going on and that since he had no control of his personalities and has no memory of it what so ever that he is unsafe to society and would have to be under watch over a period of time. This court case is just one of many throughout the nation of DID and the law running into each other and that is a problem that was as a society definitely need to a look at and establish outlets from patients who suffer from a dissociative identity disorder.
4) like a sleepwalker, the defendant was unconscious of alternates’ behaviors and hence cannot be held accountable for them” 14
3) by virtue of suffering for MPD, it is impossible for the defendant to conform his or her behaviors to the law or to know right from wrong
2) the defendant does not remember the acts of secondary personalities and therefore cannot participate in his or her own defense
1) “the defendant has no control over the actions of his or her secondary personalities and therefore cannot be held responsible for them
A question coming on this topic was wondering what happens to the victims if a criminal act is involved because you would have to treat this in a delegate matter. In an article from Dr. Marlene Steinburg called “Multiple Personality Disorder in Criminal Law”, Steinburg highlights recent readings and write-ups about victims dealing with this disorder and the corresponding to the law. “With regard to MPD, persons on trial for crimes committed by alter personalities rely on one or more of four major defenses.
Since this incident, dissociative identity disorder started to gain notice and the more notice it started to attract the more scientist and people in everyday life wanted to know about the condition. Scholarly articles shot up in the years 1988-1998 span.
“Although this disorder has received a lot of attention from the media and the general public, it is arguably the most controversial disorder in the DSM. In fact, clinicians and researchers disagree about the legitimacy of dissociative identity disorder. Some clinicians argue that the descriptions in the DSM accurately reflect the symptoms of these patients, whereas others believe that patients are faking, role-playing, or using the disorder as a way to justify behavior.” 13
Dissociative identity disorder is controversial throughout the mental health field because it is rarely reported outside of North America. There was a case dealing with a woman from Dodge Center, Minnesota named Shirley Ardell Mason also known as “Sybil”. This was the first recorded case in America and the main reason it became recorded because it initially was exposed. A book “Sybil Exposed” surfaced the bookshelves across America in 1973 and sold over six million copies. The book was about Shirley Ardell Mason and how she dealt with sixteen different personalities because of physical and sexual abuse, then later the book began to lose credibility when a writer challenged the notion of this occurring and that the who thing was made up so that the author could gain revenue for their company.
Herschel Walker is often referred to one of the greatest athletes because he possessed so many talents. From an amazing football career to mixed martial arts and many others in between it seemed like he was unstoppable. Yet behind the scenes, there was one thing that was standing in his way, and that was dissociative identity disorder. Herschel’s therapist claims that he has about four different personalities. His former teammates said that they had never thought anything was wrong with him. Eventually, he would later write a book talking about his struggles and how he coped with them. It was hard to pinpoint exactly what caused his disorder but like many cases, a childhood trauma in which he experienced was probably the spark. When Herschel was younger he was bullied and would get in fights with other kids because they would make fun of his weight and his speech impediment. The ironic part is they were bullying him, and this would be a foundation in Herschel becoming a great athlete. As he grew older he continued to hold the anger inside of him until one day he took it out on the football field. In high school, he played football, basketball and ran track, but it was abilities in football that would take off like a rocket. After he graduated high school, he attended The University of Georgia. While being a part of their football team he prevailed, he was honored as All-American three times and won the Heisman (Most Valuable Collegiate Football Player) in 1982. This great accomplishment that’s stays with someone forever. The only issue in this instance is that the disorder took the memory away from him. In an interview, Herschel disclosed that he didn’t even remember winning it. After college, he continued to get better and went to play in the USFL and NFL where his achievements kept growing. He played 15 years and then decided to retire, during this time he lost one of the outlets that had kept him sane for so many years. Since he no way to channel all the energy from the different personalities it started to take a toll on him. One day he found himself in the kitchen challenging death in a game of Russian Roulette. Not only was DID effecting him but it also affected his marriage. He began to take the anger out not only on himself but also on his and his wife’s relationship of 19 years. After also putting a gun to her on the head multiple occasions and suffering from different types of abuse she left him. It was at that point he realized that he needed to get help before something very serious happened. Soon he would start martial arts to help with his aggression. Herschel competed in martial arts from the years of 2010-2011. After retirement Herschel continues to recover each day with the help of his therapist and people close to him who offer support. One of the biggest ways he counties to better himself is reaching out to others who suffer from this disorder also. He has visited multiple military bases let them know they are not alone and seeking help is the best thing to do. In 2008 he released a book to share his story and shed light on people’s situations in hope of taking the negative stigma away.
Studies have shown that up to 2% of adults in the United States have been diagnosed with a dissociative identity disorder. Even though this disorder does not discriminate age, race or gender, it has been proven that women are affected more often, men. One factor that remains the same is no matter where one lands on today’s social class ladder, the opportunity for this disorder to grab hold of a person’s life remains constant. Actors and actress, athletes, singers, and writers are a few examples. Herschel Walker was an iconic athlete who came out and shared his story in 2008. Another is Adam Duritz is in the music and cinema industry.
Famous People with D.I.D
“Regulation of emotions during development is to do with the modification, direction, and control of intense arousal, distress i.e. developing modes of coping with stress.” 10 Having a condition of this sort can definitely take a toll on one’s emotional well-being, therefore, focusing on the different behavioral therapies.
These main three types with the changes in the negative thinking about the situation at hand, teaching different types things to help build a stronger relationship with society and lastly to alleviate the stress that associates with going through a traumatic experience. 9
· Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)
· Dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT)
· Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
Psychotherapies are the solution to solve this condition and help better the patient livelihood. There are three main types of psychotherapies which include:
Treatment for the victims who suffer from this condition is very crucial to the fact that it serves as a safety net for the victims while also helping the victims develop skills to help them move forward with their lives and to find a way to take each person and bring them together into one stable personality. Often a lot of assumptions people think that the solution to this condition is flooding the patient with drugs on top of drugs to help cope with their mental state. But that can not be further from the truth. Drugs are not even mentioned when dealing with a patient that suffers from a dissociative identity disorder.
The chart above displays the different percentages of what causes DID to occur in a victim with emotional abuse leading the way with 82% in occurrence.
There, not a distinct time frame where this condition occurs, the victim could experience this at any age throughout their life. While stating earlier that the main cause of dissociating identity disorder to come about is through a traumatic experience, victims often suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder as well. Victims often have nightmares and flashbacks. After being diagnosed with DID having PTSD on top of that you see that the people involved with this horrific condition are really at war with their own mind and treatments are crucial to helping the victims becoming in control with this condition.
Experts in the mental health field often say that the most common thing linked to the cause of someone becoming a victim of dissociative identity disorder is the victim experiencing a childhood trauma, dissociation, and psychosis. Numerous of an article of articles state that theirs a field of evidence that surrounds and demonstrating that childhood trauma (i.e. sexual abuse, physical abuse, isolation) is the foundation for schizophrenia, and that is the main cause of DID. “The relationship among trauma, dissociation, and psychosis has been a topic of study in the dissociative disorders ?eld for several decades 5, but only recently has the role of dissociation in psychosis been a subject of research by investigators outside the dissociative disorders ?eld 5,6. Future research may identify a subgroup of individuals with schizophrenia who meet criteria for a dissociative subtype of the disorder, characterized by amnesia, depersonalization, distinct identity states, auditory hallucinations, severe trauma, and extensive comorbidity 7,8. This subtype may respond to psychotherapies like those developed for the treatment of DID.”
Often when doctors ask the patient to describe what it feels like to have dissociated identity disorder the one common sign is when a patient describes the condition as if multiple voices are in their head and are constantly telling the body how to operate, becoming somewhat depersonalized. When mentioning telling the body how to operate they are talking about losing control of how they feel and the emotions that present themselves with the situation being controlled by something other than their conscious self. Patients in some cases even tell the doctors they can physically feel different changes throughout their body, for instance, becoming stronger, weaker, and younger. While doing research on these conditions, I found that dissociative identity disorder also has a fugue stage/symptom. Usually, these are the more serious cases. Being in a fugue stage, the victim has no recollection of where they went or what actions the had recently were involved in. According to Psychology Today, “More than 70 percent of people with DID have attempted suicide, and self-injurious behavior is common among this population. Treatment is crucial to improving quality of life and preventing suicide attempts.” The reasoning behind this is because the victims just want their normal lives back without feeling like that must “share it”.
How different personalities come into flourishing is by different stress or tension within the person’s mind. Some cases the personality only comes under certain circumstances. There are two types of cases when dealing with dissociate identity disorder the first one is the possession-form. The possession form deals with numerous identities, like an alternate ego, and this form can be visibly noticeable to society. This form interacts with society and is conscious of its doing. The second case of dissociative identity disorder is the non-possession form. Non-possession-form does not necessarily show the change of personality right here and now, it happens over a long period of time.
Dissociative Amnesia- The main symptom is difficulty remembering important information about one’s self. Dissociative amnesia may surround a particular event, such as combat or abuse, or more rarely, information about identity and life history. The onset of an amnesic episode is usually sudden, and an episode can last minutes, hours, days, or, rarely, months or years. There is no average for age onset or percentage, and a person may experience multiple episodes throughout her life.
Depersonalization disorder- This disorder involves ongoing feelings of detachment from actions, feelings, thoughts, and sensations as if they are watching a movie (depersonalization). Sometimes other people and things may feel like people and things in the world around them are unreal (derealization). A person may experience depersonalization, derealization or both. Symptoms can last just a matter of moments or return at times over the years. The average onset age is 16, although depersonalization episodes can start anywhere from early to mid-childhood. Less than 20% of people with this disorder start experiencing episodes after the age of 20.
Dissociative identity disorder- Formerly known as multiple personality disorder, this disorder is characterized by alternating between multiple identities. A person may feel like one or more voices are trying to take control of their head. Often these identities may have unique names, characteristics, mannerisms and voices. People with DID will experience gaps in memory of everyday events, personal information and trauma. Women are more likely to be diagnosed, as they more frequently present with acute dissociative symptoms. Men are more likely to deny symptoms and trauma histories, and commonly exhibit more violent behavior, rather than amnesia or fugue states. This can lead to an elevated false negative diagnosis.” 4
According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness, “the symptoms of dissociative identity disorders depend on the type of disorder that has been diagnosed. There are three types of dissociative disorders defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM):
· These symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.” 3
· Frequent gaps are found in memories of personal history, including people, places, and events, for both the distant and recent past. These recurrent gaps are not consistent with ordinary forgetting.
· The disruption in identity involves a change in sense of self, sense of agency, and changes in behavior, consciousness, memory, perception, cognition, and motor function.
· “The individual experiences two or more distinct identities or personality states (each with its own enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and self). Some cultures describe this as an experience of possession.
When detecting dissociates identity disorder things to look for from an article by “Psychology Today” is:
With DID gaining more notice throughout the world and even filmmakers have started to take notice of the mental disorder. Filmmaker M. Night Shyamalan produced in 2016 a movie called “Split”. “Split” is an American psychological horror story about three young girls who become captured and held hostage by a man who has twenty-two different personalities. The plot, however, is that there is the twenty-third personality that the world has not witnessed yet and is on the verge of coming to light. Throughout the film, we see the constant struggle between the main character Kevin. Every week Kevin visits his doctor, Dr. Fletcher who keeps track of the different personalities and she can call the personality of Kevin the “light.” In the movie, each personality sits in a chair in the mind and waits for there turn in the “light.” The “light” is explained to be a place in the brain where the personality strong enough at that point in time get the attention and controls the body. The audience gets a glimpse of four main personalities: Barry (a homosexual fashion designer), Dennis (an intelligent man who rapes young girls), Patricia (a woman who is very dominant) and lastly Hedwig (a young boy who we see throughout the movie has complete control over the “light” besides Kevin). Dr. Fletcher discovers that Kevin suffered from a traumatic experience when he was a young boy. This movie shines a light on the issue of dissociative identity disorder but the issue with it that the movie approaches the mental health issue as a horror and terror to society but really society needs to have the resources and the understanding of the condition.
during the 1952 edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
· somnambulism (sleepwalking)
· dream states
Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) also known as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) is a rare disease that often victimizes the person involved with it. It is a serious condition which two or more identities, or personality states, are present in—an alternately take control of an individual. Often the people who suffer from this condition describe it as a possession and the victim’s experiences memory loss that is too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness. “DID was called multiple personality disorder until 1994, when the name was changed to reflect a better understanding of the condition—namely, that it is characterized by a fragmentation, or splintering, of identity rather than by a proliferation, or growth, of separate identities. As this once rarely reported disorder has become more common, the diagnosis has become controversial.” 1 The earliest case recorded was in 1791, and this case was about a German woman who had two different personalities. The first one was her natural German self and the other one identified as a French woman who could speak perfect French and behave like a French lady and spoke with a slight German accent. The crazy thing about it was when the woman identified as the French woman she could remember everything that was going between her and the German personality but when she identified as the German lady, the original identity she had no recollection. Dissociative Identity Disorder was at the top of the list for different studies and between the 1880 and in 1944, 67% of all known cases had been reported during that time. 2 Before having its own category in the medical field, dissociative identity disorder was identified through six different labels;