2.0 is explained that the nurse shortage in US

2.0 INTRODUCTION

            Health care
provider is the important people in the health care organization. The health
care providers are doctors, nurses, nurse assistance and others. However, in
the world nowadays, nurse shortage is really an issue especially related to the
quality of care given to the patients. Nurse shortage can be understood as
imbalance between the demand of the nurse and its supply (Ramoo, Abdullah, & Chua, 2013). There is different percentage of the nurses needed among
different countries.

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            In US, there is 98
registered nurses per 100 000 population, as has been reported by the global
health policy 2010 (Amadi, 2015). These numbers seems to be unable to keep pace with the patient
care demand. 260 000 nurses may be needed by 2025 to fulfill the demand of the
patients. According to American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) (2014),
the health care system will provide 3.24 million jobs to the US. It is
increased compared to 2012, which is 2.72 million jobs to the US. Thus, it is
explained that the nurse shortage in US would continue until 2030. Meanwhile in
Jordan, it is estimated a number of 12 240 registered nurses in 2007 (Jordanian
Nursing Council ,2003; cited from AbuAlRub, El-jardali, Jamal, Iblasi,
& Murray, 2013).
However there are only 7 842 registered nurses who actively working in Jordan
in 2007 (Al-Maaitah & Shokeh, 2009; cited from (AbuAlRub et al., 2013). It is also mentioned in the research that even the nursing
education system in Jordan has been developed well, the number of nurses still
face challenges.

            The same problem
faced in Malaysia. The demand for nurses are increase resulted from the rapid
development of the health care sector and the population (Barnett et al., 2010,
Kanchanachitra et al., 2011; cited from Ramoo et al., 2013). Ramoo et al. (2013) also mentioned in their review that although the nursing workforce
has been developed since few decades, it is still insufficient to serve the
entire population. To meet the Ministry of Health’s vision 1:200 nurse to population
ratio by 2020, around 40 000 nurses are needed.

 

3.0 PROBLEM STATEMENTS

            According to Shockness (2015), the global nurse shortage may be resolved with the help from the
nurse faculty. It is because the nurse faculty carried out the responsibility
to train nurses. However, despite many researches that have been discussed and
conducted, the nurse shortage still occurred globally. This issue has become a
challenge to the world in order to ensure the nursing workforce and patient
health-related outcomes.

            The Deputy
Minister of Health of Malaysia, Datuk Seri Helmi Yahaya, has been mentioned
that the government targeted to achieve the ratio of 1:200 nurse to population.
However, it is difficult to be realized in these near period due to huge gap
between numbers of recruitment of nurses with total population. Therefore, it
can be understood that more nurses are needed to overcome the issue of nurse
shortage.

 

4.0 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

            According to Smith (2012), she reviewed that the framework which will be used in the study
may develop from the concepts, definitions, terms, models or theories of the
literature base. It is described as the underlying structure, which can help the
researcher in conducting the study. Other than that, “the theoretical framework
provides insights, explanations, and predictions regarding a certain
phenomenon” (p. 12) (Walker & Avant, 2005; cited from Smith, 2012). Thus, it can be understood that framework will be apply
throughout the study.

5.0 TRANSITION THEORY

            In this assignment
related to the nurse shortage, the theoretical framework of the transition
theory will be explained. This theory is being chosen due to its ability in
providing explanation regarding the reasons that can influence the nurses to
leave or stay in this nursing profession (Smith, 2012). Hence, it is really hope that this theory able to help in
determining the actual factors that can influence the shortage in nursing.

            The word
transition is defined as the process and the outcome of person-environment
interaction. It also can be understood as the passage from one phase, condition
or status to another (Chick & Meleis, 1986; cited from Ramsay, Huby, Thompson, & Walsh,
2013). The
transition theory has been developed by Meleis from the mid-1960s (Smith, 2012). During that time, she was working on her PhD which focused on the
condition of people who do not carried out the healthy transitions. She then
discovered the interventions to facilitate a healthy transition (Al-Omar & Abushaikha, 2017). Smith (2012) reviewed that if there is change of condition during a transition,
it may affect the individual and may influence the lives of significant others.

            In 2010, Meleis
gathered all the theoretical works related to the Transitions Theory and then
published them in a book of ‘Transitions Theory: Middle-Range and
Situation-Specific Theories in Nursing Research and Practice’ (Al-Omar & Abushaikha, 2017). The middle-range theory of transition explained:

1.     
Types
and patterns of transitions

2.     
Properties
of transition experiences

3.     
Transition
conditions (facilitators and inhibitors)

4.     
Patterns
of response (process indicators and outcome indicators)

5.     
Nursing
therapeutic

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