(A A person may also have multiple disabilities. Disability

(A Qualitative Study of Blind
Peoples in Faisalabad)

Abstract

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The Study Report
Entitled “Learning Abilities of Disabled Person” and our main focused on blind
peoples. The Research aimed to investigate the characteristics of learning
abilities in case of visual impaired persons. Many people assisted in the
conduct of this research. Special thanks are also due to the teachers and
students who participated in this study for their motivation to help the Report
by being interviewed. The average age of participants was 12-35. The challenges
faced by blind people in their everyday lives are not well understood. In this
report, our key findings of a small level study of the visual questions that
blind people would like to have answered. These results improve our
understanding of the problems blind people face, and may help motivate new
projects more accurately targeted to help blind people live more independently
in their everyday lives.

Overall, the following key findings for practice
emerged:

·        
Insufficient emphasis on learning Braille, and at an early age;

·        
Insufficient numbers of teachers and support staff trained in
Braille

·        
Insufficient Facilities of New technology and its software

·        
Little Awareness about Institutions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

The
term “disability” broadly describes construction in a person’s ability to function, caused
by changes in various subsystems of the body, or to mental health. The degree
of disability may range from mild to sensible,
harsh, or philosophical. A person may also have multiple disabilities.

Disability
can be categorized as:

·        
Physical Impairment

Wheelchair User,

·        
Sensory and Visual Impairment

Hearing (Deaf), Vision loss (Blind)

·        
Learning Disability

Dyslexia, Dyspraxia

·        
Long Term Mental illness

Depression, Dementia

Visual Impairment

Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by
usual means, such as glasses. Some also include those who have a decreased ability to see because
they do not have access to glasses or contact lenses. The term blindness is used for complete or nearly complete vision
loss. Visual impairment may cause people difficulties with normal daily
activities such as driving, reading, socializing, and walking.  

Basic Important learning Styles and Abilities

Mobility

Many people with serious visual impairments can travel independently,
using a wide range of tools and techniques. Orientation and mobility
specialists are professionals who are specifically trained to teach people with
visual impairments how to travel safely, confidently, and independently in the
home and the community. These professionals can also help blind people to
practice travelling on specific routes which they may use often, such as the
route from one’s house to a convenience store

Tools such as the white cane with a
red tip – the international symbol of blindness – may also be used to improve mobility. A long
cane is used to extend the user’s range of touch sensation. It is usually swung
in a low sweeping motion, across the intended path of travel, to detect
obstacles. However, techniques for cane travel can vary depending on the
user and/or the situation.

A small number of people employ guide dogs to assist
in mobility. These dogs are trained to navigate around various obstacles, and
to indicate when it becomes necessary to go up or down a step. However, the
helpfulness of guide dogs is limited by the inability of dogs to understand
complex directions. 

Reading and
magnification

Most visually impaired people who are not totally blind read print,
either of a regular size or enlarged by magnification devices. Many also read large-print, which is
easier for them to read without such devices. A variety of magnifying glasses, some
handheld, and some on desktops, can make reading easier for them.

Others read Braille (or the infrequently
used Moon type), or rely on talking books and
readers orreading machines, which convert printed text to speech or Braille. They use computers with special
hardware such as scanners and refreshable
Braille displays as well as software written
specifically for the blind, such as optical
character recognition applications and screen readers.

Computers

Access technology such as screen readers, screen magnifiers and displays
enable the blind to use normal computer applications and mobile phones. The
availability of assistive technology is increasing, accompanied by concerted
efforts to ensure the accessibility of information technology to all potential
users, including the blind. Later versions of Microsoft Windows include
an Accessibility Wizard & Magnifier for those with partial vision, and Microsoft Narrator, a simple screen reader. Linux distributions (as live CDs) for the blind include Oralux andAdriane Knoppix, the latter
developed in part by Adriane Knopper who has a
visual impairment. Mac OS also comes with a built-in screen reader,
called VoiceOver.

Communication

Communication with the visually
impaired can be more difficult than communicating with someone who doesn’t have
vision loss. However, many people are uncomfortable with communicating with the
blind, and this can cause communication barriers. One of the biggest obstacles
in communicating with visually impaired individuals comes from face-to-face
interactions. There are many factors that can cause the sighted to become
uncomfortable while communicating face to face. There are many non-verbal
factors that hinder communication between the visually impaired and the
sighted, more often than verbal factors do.

Surroundings

Individuals with a visual
disability not only have to find ways to communicate effectively with the
people around them, but their environment as well. The blind or visually
impaired rely largely on their other senses such as hearing, touch, and smell
in order to understand their surroundings.

Sound

Sound is one of the most
important senses that the blind or visually impaired use in order to locate
objects in their surroundings. A form of echolocation is used, similarly to
that of a dolphin or bat. Echolocation from a person’s
perspective is when the person uses sound waves generated from speech or other
forms of noise such as cane tapping, which reflect off of objects and bounce
back at the person giving them a rough idea of where the object is. This does
not mean they can depict details based on sound but rather where objects are in
order to interact, or avoid them. Increases in atmospheric pressure and
humidity increase a person’s ability to use sound to their advantage as wind or
any form of background noise impairs it.

Touch

Touch is also an important aspect
of how blind or visually impaired people perceive the world. Touch gives
immense amount of information in the person’s immediate surroundings. Feeling
anything with detail gives off information on shape, size, texture,
temperature, and many other qualities. Touch also helps with communication;
braille is a form of communication in which people use their fingers to feel
elevated bumps on a surface and can understand what is meant to be interpreted. There are some issues and limitations with touch as not all
objects are accessible to feel, which makes it difficult to perceive the actual
object. Another limiting factor is that the learning process of identifying
objects with touch is much slower than identifying objects with sight. This is
due to the fact the object needs to be approached and carefully felt until a
rough idea can be constructed in the brain.

Smell

Certain smells can be associated
with specific areas and help a person with vision problems to remember a
familiar area. This way there is a better chance of recognizing an areas layout
in order to navigate themselves through. The same can be said for people as
well. Some people have their own special odor that a person with a more trained
sense of smell can pick up. A person with an impairment of their vision they
can use this to recognize people within their vicinity without them saying a
word.

Social development

Social development includes
interactions with the people surrounding the infant in the beginning of its
life. To a child with vision, a smile from a parent is the first symbol of
recognition and communication, and is almost an instant factor of
communication. For a visually impaired infant, recognition of a parent’s voice
will be noticed at approximately two months old, but a smile will only be
evoked through touch between parent and baby. This primary form of
communication is greatly delayed for the child and will prevent other forms of
communication from developing. Social interactions are more complicated because
subtle visual cues are missing and facial expressions from others are lost.

Due to delays in a child’s
communication development, they may appear to be disinterested in social
activity with peers, non-communicative and un-education on how to communicate
with other people. This may cause the child to be avoided by peers and
consequently over protected by family members.

 

             In short Every Disabled have learning
abilities like an abled.

Research Question

The research question for the
current study is: “what are the learning abilities of visual impaired persons in
Faisalabad.”

In order to answer the research
question we conducted an interview schedule using our references in Alfaisal
Blind center Faisalabad and also interview of pupils of visual impairment in
shops.

 

Objectives

Develop awareness of
and promote research on the causes, obstacle, and treatment of learning
and related developmental disabilities.

·        
To gain knowledge and understanding in:

·        
The meaning of disability and impairment

·        
Attitudes and barriers faced by people

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Literature Review

A literature review discuss published information’s in a particular
subject area, and some time information’s in a particular subject area within a
certain time period. A large number of studies relating to the role of training
in the developing tolerance and personality of individual.

Royal National Institute for the Blind (1999)
investigated the financial information needs of blind and sight-impaired
people. This study focused on the useful design features for financial
information. It was found that a large proportion of people who were receiving
their financial information in standard print would prefer large print.
However, younger participants were more likely to want to read Braille or a
computer disk.

A similar study to the current one was carried out by
Shunmugam (2002). The research explored barriers as experienced by visually
impaired students at the then University of Natal. The attitudes of the
university/ student population were also examined. His mode of data collection
was interviews with semi-structured questions and literacy documentation. The
results revealed that most of the identified problems such as inaccessible
information services and attitudinal barriers from the university community were
not specific to a campus, but rather related to the university as a whole.

On the same line of
thinking, Budricks (2007) did a needs assessment on visually impaired students
at the UKZN-PMB. The focal point of this study was on problems, limitations and
difficulties encountered by visually impaired students, the available services
of the DU, the accessibility of technological resources and the identification
40 of limitations of the available services. Data was gathered through the use
of structured and semi-structured interview schedules. Although Budricks (2007)
did not include the attitudes of the university population to visually impaired
students, the results yielded were similar to those that were raised by
Shunmugam (2002). Similarly, there is a real need to address attitudinal
barriers at all levels of the institution that continue to locate the ‘problem’
of disability (with perceived personal limitations) in the learner rather than
the limitations of the system with its inability to meet the full range of
learning needs among the student population.

Dr. Kenneth Jernigan,when
an individual becomes blind, he faces two major problems: First, he must learn
the skills and techniques which will enable him to carry on as a normal,
productive citizen in the community; and second, he must become aware of and
learn to cope with public attitudes and misconceptions about blindness
attitudes and misconceptions which go to the very roots of our culture and
permeate every aspect of social behavior and thinking .

Poet John Milton,
who went blind in mid-life, composed On His Blindness, a sonnet about coping with
blindness. The work posits that those who best Bear God’s mild
yoke, they serve him best.

 

 

Related Movies Reviews

Aankhen

Aankhen
is an Indian movie, the movie was absolutely fantastic. It had a lot of twists
and turns along the way, and kept viewers on the edge of their seat never
knowing what was going to occur next. The movie is about a recently fired
schizophrenic bank manager scheming to get even with his employers by robbing
the bank with the help of three blind men and a beautiful blind school teacher!
Amitabh Bachchan as the bank manager excels in his role. He is one of the most
talented guys out there today. Pity not all his movies are as good as this one
or his earlier Aks. The movie moves with a fast pace initially, but slows down
towards the middle with cursory song and dance sequences spoiling its pace (the
two songs – one with the three blind guys and the other in the bar are very
painful to sit through). . Vipal Shah did a great job directing this movie. The
story was simple, yet how it was told was nicely done. Each character had an
interesting story of how he lost his sight.

Black

The emotional tale of a deaf, mute and blind girl, and her
teacher who brings a ray of light into her world of BLACK. Include in this
movie a disabled girl have a feelings of love, and learn more in Love. The
story also shows the real love, love of soul.  Sanjay
Leela Bhansali outstand directed which written by Bhavani
Iyer.

Research Methodology

The purpose of this chapter is to present the research study design
and methodology as well as the techniques applied in the research. The nature
of this study is qualitative with some quantitative elements, as it focused on
obtaining in–depth information seeking behavior of student with visual
impairments. The chapter further details information
about the three categories of the units of analysis used in the study and how
they were obtained. Data collection and analysis procedures are presented.
Evaluation of the research methodology is also provided.

Choice of
Method

We recommended a qualitative approach to the research.
So our research methodology for this study is both descriptive and analytical.
The orientation is qualitative in that the research required to use the
literature to provide a broad description of issues and themes concerning
visual impaired people. To this broad description is added the more in-depth
data and analysis provided by semi-structured interviews with student and
teachers.

The research was undertaken as an exploration and
mapping exercise. That is, the aim of the methodology was to provide an
examination and analysis of the current situation in terms of visually impaired
people’s use of Braille and technologies to assist learning, working and
living.

Target Population and Universe

The
research population is considered a critical part of any survey. A target
population consists of all elements or units of analysis about whom survey
information is collected. In social scientific research there is a wide range
of variation in what or who is studied, what is technically called units of
analysis. Units of analysis are defined by Welman, Kruger and Mitchel (2005:
25) as those we examine in order to create summary descriptions of all such
units and explain differences among them. Our
target population are visual impaired people of Faisalabad but for us small
research report we conduct a small unit (Universe) of blind teachers and
students to know about today learning styles and skills of visual impairment.

Sampling method

A sample is a proportion or subset of the population.
It is not possible to include all blind persons who live in Faisalabad due to
budget and time constraints and it would be outside the scope of a learner
researcher. Therefore, the findings from the current study will provide the
greatest impact on us. One type of sampling use for this research. For this
survey we use convenient simple sampling (kind of Non-probability) method.
Because our research is conduct on small level and we use some reference for
this purpose.

Tool for Data Collection

The most important art of statistical work is data
collection. The data was collected in 3 or 4 days by the researcher himself in
a face to face situation. All the respondents were interviewed personally. Our
tool for this study is In-depth interviews.

Interview Schedule and Field Experience

The interview schedule is considered as an appropriate tool for
collecting requisite information’s. It was formatted in English language for
academic purpose. But the questions were asked in Urdu and Punjabi also
according to the situation in order to get maximum information’s. However
translation was done very carefully.

Data collection is not easy task. Social scientist generally face
situation in which responses are difficult to get. The researcher faced some
difficulties at the time of data collection. Some of respondents, who were
illiterate, were ignorant about the importance of social research. In some
cases respondent did no cooperate with interview like these difficulties
handled with tolerance and relax mind.

 Collected Data
& Results

We collected
Data with the lot of Barriers and collect with hardly effort according to our
research question. Our data is collective not all respondents are same in age,
sex and gender. Include in different angles in our collected data which we
described in manually with some Themes and Sub Themes like patterns. Our
Respondents are Teacher, students and also pupils.

Institutions

In Faisalabad
today many institutions work for increase learning skills and promote abilities
of disables persons but our main focus for this research is blind and visual
impairments. For this we visit the old and famous learning center for blind
Alfaisal Center.

Themes of
Results Manually

Theme of
Teachers Response

 According to blind teachers every human have
equally powers of hearing, speaking, touching, Thinking, smelling etc. They
argued that blind students and pupils have different level of learning
abilities according to their mind and practices. They focused on one quotation
“You More Practice then You are More Expert” and learn everything with their usage
of mind and power which develop their skills. They tells us nothing fully
awareness to new technology but some teachers have fully skilled in computer
with hold the commands of reading software. According to their opinions our
learning process is start from Braille (6 Dotted language)and when a student
learn reading then hi star learn writing, but some time in small age like 8 to
10 children and after 35 age learning is very difficult. Because under 10
children find things and think about concepts and other hand in more age
persons not understand learning methodologies. They do not mean they not learn
but they learn slow then youngsters. Answers of another questions they tells
about technology , they told us with the help of software we learn speedy, and
we learn and done work any type which we worked on a one place sitting and
standing. But they have insufficient facilities of technology. According to a
teacher in Pakistan have no facility to get Urdu translator like Hindi
translator software.

Theme of
Students Response

After in-depth
interviews with blind students we collect a meaningful data. All students have
beautiful thinking like normal student or sighted. They wish for light but not
hurtly but as wish, wish for learning speedy. They also use the mobile phones
by the learning software. They are not behind to sighted persons. They argued
that we learning everything but not see anything. On this time we nothing
defined the any type of Light. Students have not light of eyes but their
confidence said with heart Learning Light is ON. Old students are more expert
then new students. A student tell us our learning is slow because we are alone
in a rush life. Mostly blind persons have not aware about learning institutions
then they admits late. They also want seeking music, acting and modeling but
not have opportunities.

Sub Themes or
Patterns

Hurdles:

A teacher said
that if we feel then for us everything is hurdle or obstacle of our life. Even
eating food, drinking water, sleeping, walking etc. But according to
overall interviews we point out some hurdles of their lives whereas follow:

·        
Walking on Road or Bus Stop

·        
Low awareness about institutions

·        
No Friends or Social contacts

·        
Insufficient Facilities of
technology

·        
Insufficient Gaudiness

·        
Sympathy of other which hurtled

·        
 Insufficient care

IQ levels

There IQ level
are very high because they think in every time, also in society sometime, we
saw

Blind person
recited Quran by heart. According to a simple normal person they have brilliant
IQ level but According to our respondents they practice more, so they Increase
their IQ level, because all minds are same.

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