A- The Puritans- or the “visible saints”- believed that they alone were eligible for church membership as they were part of the (saved) elect from their belief of predestination. Accordingly, they believed that they were the best and thus only they had the right to practice religion. The Puritans did not want other non believers to taint the relationship with God when they practiced the Puritan religion; they believed that they were carrying God’s mission sent to them when barring other “incorrect” religions. They were hostile to people with opposing theological ideas; an example is Anne Hutchinson who was exiled.C- The Puritans strongly believed in the notion of a covenant, the agreement between God and people. The Puritans watched closely over each other and created a strong community to make sure that no one violated the covenant, for it is the community that honors and keeps the covenant, not only an individual. In addition, the Puritans felt strongly about community because they had to stay together to survive; they felt a sense of kinship when they came together from England. B- E- The Dawes Severalty Act dismantled the Native American reservations that were held communally and allotted smaller units to individuals in the tribe. In this way, it tried to mold flexible Native American lifestyles to rigid American federal laws, from a tribal group to individuals. It encouraged the Native Americans to farm government held land instead of hunter-gathering; if the Natives were not successful in farming, then the government took back the land and put it for sale. All Native American land once owned was taken by the government. It also forced Native American children to attend boarding schools where the children were punished if they exhibited signs of their native culture. E- Americans were not interested in conserving the soil because the only goal they had in mind was to move west to make money (by exploiting the natural resources) and to spread across the country (because of Manifest Destiny). Lots of Americans went west to settle rapidly due to the Homestead Act as well, for it offered lots of land at cheap prices and fair conditions. Lastly, soil conservation was not an issue because the Americans believed that their land was infinite, so they didn’t need to conserve resources as it would always be there.D- Congress abolished Freedmen’s Bureau in 1872 due to a shortage of funds and tensions with white Southerners who despised the institution. The Reconstruction Congress gave blacks voting rights and citizenship in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, as well as a Civil Rights Act (1866) which protected ex-slaves from Southern laws (e.g. Black Codes, Vagrancy Laws) that jeopardized their newly gained freedom. A military occupied the South as well to make sure that the South was following the implemented northern administration. The Amendments were also passed during Reconstruction in the years of 1865 to 1870.C- Although Reconstruction formally ended with the Compromise of 1877 where Hayes agreed to withdraw federal troops from the South, it also ended because the Northerners believed that their efforts would not get the South to change its mind. Reconstruction started in 1865; the conditions of the blacks did improve, but in ten years, the whites still hadn’t changed their opinions on racial equality, and some might argue that conditions became even worse for the blacks (i.e. Jim Crow Laws, Ku Klux Klan, Redeemers). Lastly, Northerners were also focused on recovering money from the Panic of 1873 and didn’t have any money to pay taxes for Reconstruction. In general, people were tired of trying to change immutable conditions.B- The First Great Awakening was an emotional response; it sought to revive the religious fervor that the churchgoers lost. Preachers such as Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield were very intense in their speeches and succeeded in revitalizing and recruiting people. The Second Great Awakening, while religious, also created an urge to reform society. Groups formed to prohibit alcohol (American Temperance Society), increase public education (Horace Mann), support rights for women (Mott, Cady Stanton, Anthony), and help the mentally ill (Dorothea Dix). These reform movements made people realize the immorality of slavery, leading to the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments after the Civil War. C- The Missouri Compromise admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state to preserve the sectional balance and prohibited slavery in the Louisiana Territory above the 36 30′ latitude line, excluding Missouri. Thus, only half of the Louisiana Territory prohibited slavery. Texas was annexed in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, and no such event provided admission of future states in pairs of free/slave, as shown in the Compromise of 1850 when California was admitted as a free state but no other state was admitted as slave. Congressional power was not established either. B- The Articles were weak because power laid mostly with the states. The states, not Congress, had the power to tax. To raise money, Congress had to ask the states or borrow from foreign governments. Congress couldn’t even regulate trade. Because of this, the Constitution gave the federal government (including Congress) more power to regulate affairs in the country so that the country would not fall apart. B- The Mount Vernon Convention discussed trade routes in state waterways and the Annapolis Convention discussed interstate trade. These meetings were held to solve the confusion of trading with other states. Since there was not a uniform currency, each area had different rules and currencies, making it difficult to exchange items, revealing a problem with the construction of the Articles.C- The Southerners were angered over the tariff Congress passed because they felt that it was too high and only protected the North. To counteract this tariff, John C. Calhoun came up with the doctrine of nullification, which stated that a state had the right to void a law that it thought was unconstitutional. Some Southerners agreed with Calhoun as it appealed with their sense of justice as well as their pockets. A- The Republican Party was not wary of immigrants, the Know Nothing Party was. The Know Nothing Party was strongly against immigrants starting from the 1840s when the Irish started coming to America. (They were especially wary because the Irish were Roman Catholic as well, which contradicted the Protestant majority in the country.) The immigrants started taking the jobs from the Americans, so the number of working jobs decreased.D- In the Homestead Act, land was claimed at 160 acres in exchange for a small fee, but the settler had to live on the land for five years in order to claim full ownership. The Homestead Act was passed after the southern states seceded because it was only the South’s fears of the balance of free and slave states that prevented the passing of the Act before. This Act was not careful; it was haphazard and easy for people to get land as the government wanted the area to populate quickly; thus, from the many settlements, the transcontinental railroad prospered. D- The entry of California as a free state forever tipped the state balance in Senate against the South. Since there were now more free states than slave, anti-slavery propositions could be made without a deadlock between the two sides as there was one more state to vote on an issue. Most of the time, the decision would be anti-slavery because the majority of states espoused that position. C- The cult of domesticity espoused the idea that women had to be the pure and honorable caretaker of the family due to their natural “femininity” and because their husbands were busy working in the “harsh” manufacturing world. The true woman was meant to be submissive to the husband, but she was also a person of great spiritual strength and integrity, someone that even her husband could look to for moral direction. The woman’s life of juggling the duties of child rearing, domestic life, and housework had to be efficient and, in a way, scientific to have enough time for the household to be orderly and beautiful. D- The government was not interested in taking care of the poor and unemployed as it left that responsibility to the citizen or the church. It was more interested with working with the businesses to promote their economy to earn more money. Some citizens did form settlement houses, yet they were still rare. People believed that people who were unemployed/poor were lazy; they didn’t realize that it was because there were no jobs or housing available. In addition, people believed in social Darwinism: if one cannot keep up with life’s issues, then they will be left behind because they weren’t physically “suitable” C- The ex-slaves didn’t have the education nor the materials necessary for a living, so they rented land and supplies from a landowner to do what they knew- farming. The landowners charged the farmer expensively by credit. After harvesting his crops, the farmer still didn’t have enough money to pay the landowner back, so he borrowed even more money, continuing the cycle. While sharecropping did revive the southern economy, its infrastructure still remained damaged from the Civil War (especially the railroads) due to the fact that it takes a while to rebuild a society. Sharecropping is not unconstitutional as it does not break any decrees in the Constitution.E- As the number of immigrants increased, the difficulties rose for the labor unions as well. The common worker was fighting for fairer conditions, yet most immigrants didn’t care for those ideals. The immigrants were not opposed to factory labor and were willing to work for lower wages. As a result, whenever there was a strike, businesses opted to hire immigrants instead of the strikers, eliminating the point of a strike.A- The Redeemers were mostly former slave owners who believed in white supremacy. They tried to take back their southern state governments and hence bitterly opposed Reconstructionist policies, for those policies supported equal rights for all. Not only were Reconstrucionist policies enacted, they were also enforced in the South by using the federal military. This made it difficult for the Redeemers to obtain their previous lifestyle back, so they actively tried to subdue Black Reconstruction.C- The encomienda system was used to facilitate Spanish colonization by using forced Indian labor. The Indians mined gold and silver for the conquistadors so the latter could become rich. Although the encomienda system was supposed to be a contract with just rights and limitations, it was more like a form of enslavement (although it wasn’t slavery). In addition, children of Spanish and Native American descent were called mestizos; Europeans were free to marry with the Natives as there were rarely European women in the New World. D- The origins of slavery started in the West Indies where the British grew sugar cane. Sugar cane takes a long time to process, so the sugar lords imported African slaves to work the plantations. As a result, the small farmers that lived in Barbados (an island in the West Indies) were economically kicked out of the West Indies. They migrated to the southern colonies and brought their Barbados customs with them, including their slaves and the Barbados code. The Barbados slave code decreed that the masters had complete control over their slaves, which included the right to punish them severely for slight infractions. The Carolinians were inspired by this practice as it was very effective, so they adopted statues similar to the Barbados codes, planting the seeds for slavery.C- Passive resistance was practiced extensively by slaves as it was the safest and most unnoticeable way of rebelling. In this way, the owners couldn’t punish the slaves because they didn’t know that the work was being sabotaged. All other methods involved severe punishment or risking one’s life; occasionally, a few slaves rebelled, but this was a risky move that always resulted in a death penalty (e.g. Denmark Vesey, Nat Turner).E- All of the other options were things that would jeopardize slavery if they occurred. Slaves could not own property as they were property themselves; moreover, giving them property would empower their self-confidence. They weren’t literate because literacy would give them a higher chance of being able to escape or rebel for they could communicate with others more easily and eavesdrop on their owner’s plans. Since slaves were considered property, it didn’t matter if an owner destroyed something that they owned, so they were not penalized.A- The presidents of the Gilded Age did not contribute to any significant events; Hayes, Garfield, Arthur, Cleveland, and Harrison are even dubbed the “forgotten presidents” as they were unnoteworthy. These presidents were mostly faces that their parties manipulated. In addition, no national crises occurred that prompted an extreme involvement with the country. Patronage defined the extent of the political excitement in the era.B- The first French settlement in North America was in 1534, an area in the Canada region. This established that the French would mainly colonize the north of North America whereas the English would colonize the central portion. It established boundaries for the two countries; when these “boundaries” were violated by the migration of English settlers, it would lead to conflicts over land. Moreover, religious dissenters from both countries both came to the New World; the Huguenots from France fled here due to the Wars of Religion, the English Puritans came because of religious persecution.C- The point of a colony was to benefit the parent country; this was done through mercantilism.The colonies’ lands encompassed many natural resources. The colony would sell their natural resources cheaply to the parent country so that it could turn the resources into manufactured goods. It would then sell the goods back at higher prices so that it could earn money- there would be an overall increase of national wealth.B- The Pequot War was a result of tensions between the Massachusetts Bay Colony and the Pequot Indians. The colonists encroached on Pequot lands because of competition with the Dutch fur trade. The English colonists began asking for tribute from the Pequot tribes. They refused, so the colonists started attacking the village, starting the war. King Philip’s War was resulted from white encroachment on Indian lands as well. It proximately started because some Indians were found guilty of murdering a Puritan praying town Indian. This conflict reignited issues of the cultural and physical encroachment between the two groups, starting the war. The Whiskey Rebellion and Bacon’s Rebellion involved white lower classes only.B- When the English colonists and Indians first met, their relations were adequate as they didn’t bother each other. However, John Rolfe in Jamestown realized that the climate and soil conditions in the area were suitable for tobacco, which was popular with the English at the time. Everybody started planting this cash crop for quick cash; however, since tobacco exhausts the land easily, it required a lot of land for a continuous harvest. Thus, the English settlers kept grabbing more and more land that the Natives needed to live on. The colonists didn’t respect the Native Americans, which deteriorated their relationship. E- The Iroquois Confederacy was a confederation of five Indian tribes that joined together to protect themselves against the headstrong tendencies of the colonists. They had a civilized, functioning government with their own regulations and rules and traded with European nations for firearms so they could defend themselves. The Iroquois even sided with the British in the French and Indian War, proving themselves similar to a political entity.E- In 1763, the Proclamation of 1763 was passed, stating that the colonists were not allowed to settle west beyond the Appalachian mountains even though Britain had acquired the land after the French and Indian War. The Americans were displeased with this because they had fought the war with the British but they weren’t rewarded. Furthermore, people were already interested in moving west as land was plentiful and there was more freedom, yet they were now restricted for no apparent reason. Salutary neglect ended in 1763, so now smugglers had less leeway in trade and had to follow British mercantilist policies instead, paying higher prices for goods. The British also passed numerous acts/ taxes to pay for the costly war; in this process, newspaper freedoms were restricted as well. B- The chief goal of mercantilism was to increase a country’s wealth, for wealth was considered a country’s military and economic power. Colonies were only a tool to acquire natural resources cheaply so that the parent country could make more money. All parts of an empire’s economy was coordinated for the good of the whole empire; hence, colonial economic welfare was subordinated to that of the imperial power.C- Because Britain’s economic policy with the colonies was mercantilism, there were high prices on english imports so that the English would have a higher profit. New England shipbuilding was successful because the ships traded on had to be either American or English; they built many ships from their bountiful forests. Smuggling was common because the prices for English goods were too high compared to other countries’, so it was cheaper overall to buy smuggled goods. B- The Natives’ Spanish and French allies no longer “protected” them politically from the British after the French and Indian War. Chief Pontiac was afraid that the relocation of the eastern tribes would happen to them too, so he led several tribes in a violent campaign to drive the British out of Ohio Country. Pontiac’s Rebellion ended when he died, although tensions between the two groups still remained.D- The colonists disliked the Stamp Act because they had no American representation in Parliament. Levying taxes was understandable if permission was requested, yet “taxation without representation” was unfair as it would deny their right as an English subject. Even when the Americans asked for an American in Parliament, the British refused, worsening tensions.B- Judicial review is the practice of deciding the constitutionality of a law. This gave power to the judicial branch in that it could make legal decisions about laws that the citizens would have to follow. Marshall implemented this in the case Marbury v. Madison and it still lasts today.C- In the Marbury v. Madison case, the Supreme Court made the principle that it could declare an act of Congress unconstitutional. William Marbury was appointed a justice of peace for the District of Columbia when the Adams presidency was about to end- Marbury wasn’t appointed by Jefferson but he would be a judge during his presidency, which displeased Jefferson. Because of this, Jefferson refused to accept this commission, so Marbury petitioned for a writ of mandamus. John Marshall declined this action and referenced the Judiciary Act of 1789 for this decision. C- The Southerners were angered over the tariff Congress passed because they felt that it was too high and only protected the North. To counteract this tariff, John C. Calhoun came up with the doctrine of nullification, which stated that a state had the right to void a law that it thought was unconstitutional. Some Southerners agreed with Calhoun as it appealed with their sense of justice as well as their pockets. C- The 1828 tariff was a high protective tariff that taxed foreign goods; this tariff protected the businesses in the north against cheap British goods when selling same items together. However, the South was negatively affected because they had to pay higher prices for manufactured goods. Additionally, imports (including Southern cotton) were taxed- Europe had to pay more to import Southern cotton, so less cotton was sold. Southerners expressed their dislike with the doctrine of nullification, foreshadowing South Carolina’s secession in later years. D- The term “Manifest Destiny” was first coined in 1845 by journalist John O’Sullivan. It declared that it was Americans’ manifest- or obvious- destiny to govern the whole North American continent. As Americans kept moving into the Mexican held Texas, Texas was slowly being sucked into Manifest Destiny, socially converted into an American state. D- The Whigs opposed Manifest Destiny for multiple reasons. Firstly, as an anti-slavery party, they feared that the acquisition of new territories would expand slavery to further lands. Secondly, a vast expanse of land would be too expensive and difficult to govern for the young U.S. government, especially since other countries already had claims to the same land. Lastly, political power would decrease in the already existing states. The Whigs vocally expressed their concerns; for example, Lincoln came up with the spot resolutions that inquired where exactly American blood was shed. C- The acquisition of new lands created a conflict of whether slavery would spread to the new territories or not, for there was no regulation that stated where slavery would end. The Missouri Compromise was no longer applicable as the latitude line only applied to the Louisiana Purchase. To try and ease the slavery conflict, various people offered different opinions on the matter. In 1846, the Wilmot Proviso suggested that there would be no slavery in the new territories. It was passed by the House (because there was a northern majority) but rejected by the Senate. Then, in 1850, the Compromise of 1850 was proposed. It diffused the problem of slavery until the Civil War, although most people disliked it. B- The Redeemers were a pro-white, Democratic party group composed of wealthy businessmen, landowners, and merchants. Their goal was to destroy any traces of Reconstruction that espoused equal rights, meaning that black equality disappeared. Additionally, they believed that government power should be severely limited. State budgets were reduced and healthcare, education, and transportation that favored blacks disappeared.A- Falling farm prices would mean that people would move out to the frontier to purchase the cheaper land. This would mean that the population in the cities would decrease since they were moving west. People would prefer the frontier over the city because the city was slum-like and the jobs had difficult working schedules and treatment, whereas the frontier was “open” and “free.” All the other events cause the number of people in a city to increase. Cutbacks would mean that farmers need money, so they would go to the cities to find jobs. Improvements in transportation meant that people could live outside the city and then travel there for work. Industrial technology required people to work the machines, which raised the population count too.D- As the country started to industrialize, the countryside and cities started to coalesce. People started moving to the farmlands as they were being converted into suburbs. Industrialization would also mean improved transportation, connecting the west to the east. E- The Homestead Act opened settlement in the Great Plains.