As in D.C., if they agreed to remain segregated.

As the women’s suffrage movement gained popularity,
African-American women were increasingly marginalized. African-American women
dealt not only with the sexism of being withheld the vote but also the racism
of white suffragists. In 1896, 2Saint, Frances E.W. Harper, Harriet Tubman and
others formed the National Association of Colored Women. The organization was
focused on both racial equality and suffrage. Mary Church Terrell, a former
slave, became NACW president and emphasized her experience to her white
suffragist counterparts the dual sexual and racial barriers felt by women in
the movement within her work, A Colored Woman in a White World.

Understandably caused by the very large and hostile divide within the movement,
specifically felt by racist prominent leaders like Susan B. Anthony and
Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Terrell within states, “A white woman has only one
handicap to overcome, a great one, true, her sex; a colored woman faces two-her
sex and her race” (#). There was also the Black Women’s Club movement, which
was instrumental in women of color campaigning for rights and representation as
well as fostering uplift and education in their own communities. AO1 Josephine St. Pierre St. Ruffin aka
2Saint founded The Woman’s Era, first newspaper written by and for
African American women in 1888. In the divided social climate, 1892 Anna Julia
Cooper published Voice from the South a foundational text of black
feminism today. When Ida Wells-Barnett, a well-known activist against lynching
and Alpha Suffrage Club were invited to march at the 1913 Suffrage Parade in
D.C., if they agreed to remain segregated. When Wells-Barnett opposed the
condition, she was told that she could do so only at the back of the parade
with all the other black women  (Dicker
51). Instead of listening, Wells-Barnett and the Alpha Suffrage Club instead
joined in the march alongside the white women.

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 AO1Discuss
the active theory and thought of WOC feminists

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