Based on the problem described in chapter I, it is necessary to conduct
studies related to work-life balance theory include the other variable and Job
Satisfaction theory. Any explanation of the theory will be explained in chapter
II as follows.
Work–life balance involves proper prioritizing between “work” such
as career and ambition and “life” such as health, pleasure, leisure,
family and spiritual development (Wambui, Cherotich, Emily, & Dave, 2017). Work-life balance is
about creating and maintaining supportive and healthy work environments, which
will enable to have a balance between work and personal life. Delecta (2011) defined work-life balance
as an individual’s ability to meet their work and family commitments as well as
other non-work activities. Work-life balance practice, the term usually refers
to one of the following factors: organizational support for dependent care,
flexible work options and family or personal leave (Kar & C. Misra, 2013). The term work-life
balance is given preference as it includes the experiences of working mothers
and helps in exploring new ways of working and living for them (Goyal, 2014).
satisfaction refers to the level or degree to which employees like their jobs (Spector,
et al, 1999) defines job satisfaction is based on the desires, needs,
motives, and feeling in the working environment. (Locke,
1976) contend that job satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive
emotional state resulting from the assessment of one’s occupation or job
& Lawler, 1968) separate job satisfaction into internal
and external satisfaction. Internal satisfaction consists of all the factors
that have a direct correlation with job satisfaction such as the sense of
success, independence, job rotation, job opportunities, personal development,
creativity, self-respect, etc. External satisfaction consists of all the other
factors which indirectly correlate with job satisfaction such as job
environment, interpersonal relations between colleagues, high salary and
possibility of promotion.
According to (Perling, Reed,
Simons, & Zgambo, 2004) Flexible working hours is a
work schedule with variable starting and ending times, within limits set by
one’s supervisor/manager. (Duggan, Cooper, & Foster, 2003) contend
that flexible working hours is working a set number
of hours with flexible start and finish times agreed upon within specific
limits.?Flexi-time is a scheduling program for full-time employees that allows
them to choose their starting and finishing times daily as long as they complete
a stipulated number of hours (Perrin, 2001).
to (Wambui et
al., 2017) a compressed work week is an
arrangement whereby employees work longer shifts in exchange for a reduction in
the number of working days in their work cycle. (Gulak,
2000) defines the compressed workweek is an alternative type of
work schedule in which the employee works more hours per day to shorten the
number of days one must report to work. Ronen & Primps (1981) describes compressed workweeks as a substitute work schedule
where there is a transaction between number of hours worked in a day and the
number of hours worked in a week.
According to (Ansari et al, 2015) Job sharing is a technique in which two or more than two
employee’s work together sharing a single full-time job. According to (Duggan et al., 2003) job sharing allowing two employees to jointly fill one full-time job, with
responsibilities and working time shared or divided between them. (Branine, 1998) argued that job sharing as an arrangement that can provide opportunities to
sections of the workforce that are usually unable to work full-time but want to
gain the benefits of a full-time employment (Branine, 1998). Job sharing allowing
employees more time for other commitments, including family responsibilities,
job sharing also facilitates the development of partnerships, where job sharers
can learn from each other while providing mutual support (Taiwo, 2016).
Family and Medical leave program
time off in a block while retaining one’s job and certain benefits (Perling et al., 2004). The ability to take paid leave from work enables
employees to address personal needs without fearing loss of income or
employment (Mathur et al., 2017). Branch (2017) argues that family and medical leave
programs entitle employees eligible to take work-protected leave for certain
family and medical reasons with the continuation of group health insurance
coverage under the same terms and conditions as if the employee did not take
This is an explanatory model and specifies the nature of
hypotheses of the study, which were set out in diagrammatic form of figure 1.
According to the model, an independent variable is “Work-Life Balance” and
dependent variable is “job Satisfaction.” They can be described as follows.