Beginning of the
Modern Period started many things began to change in Europe. The people’s view
and way to look at life and the world. Their attitudes towards the religion,
ideas and beliefs and many people had been killed because of their views.
reformation centered around person Henry
VIII’s reformation of the church is one of the most famous and important events
in English history. The king of the England Henry VIII who wanted to divorce
from Catherine of Aragon (his dead brother Arthur’s widow), who failed to give
Henry a son but gave 6 him daughters. Henry need to secure his legacy by having
a heir to his throne. He soon started to think that, the God was punishing him
to for marrying his dead brother’s widow. As a result of these unfortunate
events, Henry wanted to divorce from his marriage and marry Anne Boleyn, a
daughter of a well-known, connected Merchant family of London.
Even though the
main factor that led the England to split from the Roman Catholic Church was Henry’s desire for a divorce and economic
issues about taxation income. Also, many people of the England were
dissatisfied with the Roman Catholic Church since people believed that the
Church’s officials were abusing their position in order to gain political
power. As the Church of England was an international organisation, Henry
disliked the tower of the Church because he not controlling it. If Henry could
be powerful enough to control it and the Pope Clement VII, the events might be
shaped completely different. But there were some obstacles for Henry to fully
control it, like very powerful states, France, and Spain. Thatway Catholic
Church in England was not in serve of Henry’s interests. Henry as a king who
always seeks to find new ways to increase his income, did not like the taxation
system of the Church. Because the taxes were paid to the Church and Henry could
not take any of it. Meanwhile Catherine’s nephew Charles V, who was also the King of Spain and
the Holy Roman Emperor, due to the political and family reasons did not like
the request of Henry and asked Pope to forbid the divorce. At the beginning
Pope might be not willing to interfere but in the end he did as Charles V
wanted to do. This event triggered the
break from Roman Catholic Church.
Henry was not happy
about the call and had to find another way, he wanted to punish someone due to the
failure on his divorce attempt. So he decided to execute his minister of the
king Cardinal Wolsey but on his way to the court he died due to the natural
causes. After his death England did not select a priest as a minister of the
king. The solution for the divorce had come with Thomas Cranmar, a member of
the White Horse Group, who in 1530 suggested a legal solution for the divorce. Cranmar’s
solution was offering that the King of England should have imperial powers such
as the first Christian Roman Emperors and this statement was declaring the
Pope’s judgement on divorce as illegal. So that, if Henry wants to divorce from
a marriage, he only needs the permission of the Archbishop of the Canterbury.
But Warham was not into giving his permission. Time was running out, since Anne
was pregnant to a baby and she insisted on being Queen. Henry also had to marry
the Boleyn girl in haste to own his child legally. Just in time, following the
death of Archbishop William Warham, Cranmar was selected as the new Archbishop
of Canterbury with the help of Henry and Boleyn family.
In 1534, Parliament passed the The Act of
Supremacy and confirmed the seperation from Rome, and declared Henry to be the
Supreme Head of the Church of England. One of the consequences of the
Reformation was Henry’s freedom to finally divorce Catherine of Aragon and
marry his love Anne Boleyn legally. Henry thought that Anne Boleyn would give
him an heir to his throne. It was bit of an irony that, Henry’s himself was led
the opposition to Martin Luther’s reforms with his publication Defence of the Seven Sacraments, and
this work earned him the title of “Defender of the Faith” from Pope Leo and
then he gained his new “Supreme Head of the Church of England” title.
were the token of the strength of the Catholic Church. It was also known that monasteries
and religious houses were the wealthiest instutions in the England. Henry’s
spendings on wars and his lifestyle had led the kingdom to lack of money. Henry
in order to acquire their wealth while removing its Papist influence simply closed
many of them, also sold many of the monasteries lands to the landowners and
merchants. Many people were against dissolution of the monasteries and in 1536,
a large army of rebels marched to York with 30.000 men power and demanded that
their monasteries should be opened back again. Afterwards the march became accepted
as the Pilgramage of Grace. They were promised that Parliament will discuss
their requests but they were had been tricked. Henry never considered their
demands, infact he executed some of the rebellions. The destruction of valuable
artifacts was probably the greatest act of vandalism in England’s history.
that were spread for her was about Anne’s being witch. Anne Boleyn was deeply
believe religious and had a faith in God. Her support on the vernacular
translation of the Bible, was also one of the most important influences of
Reformation period in England.
In 1536 Lord Rochford
(brother of Queen Anne) was arrested for having an affair with his sister. Anne
investigated by a commission and found guilty for having fair with many people.
She accused for both witchcraft and adultery and imprisoned in the Tower of
London. She was the first Queen of England who publicly executed.