Carbohydrate Benedict’s solution and simple carbohydrates are heated together,

Carbohydrate is classified as a branch of organic biomolecules. Biomolecules are molecules that is formed naturally by nature. Carbohydrates are one of them. Carbohydrates is a polymer that is made up of multiple monomers forming a chain. The rule of a polymer must follow is as following :Formation of a polymer is called dehydrationDecomposition of a polymer is called condensationA polymer can contain an identical or not identical monomer but they must belong to the same monomer group. Eg ; glucose and sucroseBeing said that, carbohydrates follows this rules. The general formula for carbohydrates is (CH2O)n. The monomer of carbohydrates is called monosaccharide which can be identified with an ending (-ose). In a way, carbohydrates are most commonly found as hexose and pentose which contains 6 carbon atom and 5 carbon atoms respectively. An example of a hexose sugar is glucose. Furthermore, disaccharide exists when two monomer forms together to form a chain for example a glucose and fructose forms sucrose through dehydration where water is the byproduct with heat and pressure. This process is reversible where the water which was formed is being used with the sucrose to break the bonds and form back glucose and fructose; this reaction is called condensation. Finally, we have the polysaccharide; a long strand of monomers forming complex structures of carbohydrate. Example of polysaccharides are starch and glycogen. Starch are usually found in fruits of plants where they store up unused energy in form of starch where as glycogen basically found in animals and human alike which stores up unused energy in it. The formation of polymer is called dehydration which was mentioned earlier. When this reaction occurs bonds are formed called glycosidic bonds. This bonds take place where hydrogen ion and a hydroxide ion is removed and the oxygen ion remained bonds with the other monosaccharide.The way we normally use to identify the presence of carbohydrates or sugars, is by using Benedict’s Solution. But there is an exception, to test the presence of this sugar, we need to have to reduce it to its monomer. And the presence of this monomer in the solution will turn the benedict’s solution to clear with brick red precipitate sedimented in at the bottom of the test tube. The benedict’s solution is mainly made up of CuSO4. When a mixture of Benedict’s solution and simple carbohydrates are heated together, the solution would change to brick red. The reaction is caused by the reducing property of simple carbohydrates. The copper (II) ions in the Benedict’s solution are reduced to Copper (I) ions. The red copper(I) oxide formed is insoluble in water and is precipitated out of solution. Thus, the color change and precipitate formed. As the concentration of reducing sugar increases, the more precipitate formed and redder it is. (Aryal, 2016) This way, we can quantify the amount of simple carbohydrates present in a solution by using the amount of brick-red precipitate collected below the test tube. Other than using the amount of brick-red precipitate, we can use the colour formed using a chart from blue, green, yellow, orange and finally red. For disaccharides and polysaccharide, the solution must be hydrolyzed and broken down till it becomes a monosaccharide. Therefore, we can conclude that Benedict’s Solution is an effective way to calculate the percentage of simple sugar present.

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