Deforestation of the plants which led to overgrazing (Klissinger,

Deforestation is
the action or process of cutting down the trees in a large area or the destruction
of forests. There are many causes of the deforestation such as both illegal and
legal logging, farming activities as well as poor land management.

Deforestation has brought negative impacts too, which includes the damage to
land, the extinction of plants and soil erosion. This essay will discuss the
causes and effects of deforestation.

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First of all,
legal and illegal logging including farming activities are the causes of
deforestation (McLeish,
2007). As the population increase, humans cut down many trees and clear
forests to provide more fields for crops such as tea, rubber and oil palm (Pakenham, 2005; Golden and
Miller, 1994). It is suggested that “to satisfy the need of the growing
population for food, fuel and land, the Mayas cut down more and more of the
tropical forests on hillsides” (Pakenham, 2005, p. 7). Stenstrup (2009) states that slash and burn is one
of the techniques that have been used to clear the forest and convert it to the
agricultural land. In addition, illegal logging activities occur in order to
supply mahogany for luxurious furniture production (Golden and Miller, 1994). Since there are
many demands of mahogany and the price is high, mahogany logging keeps
increasing since the furniture company wants to gain high profit. Trees are not
replanted after the logging activities. Furthermore, Pakenham (2005) suggests that forests are
cleared to provide lands for grazing livestock. The animals walk around to find
food and eat too many of the plants which led to overgrazing (Klissinger, 2002).  As a result, it is clear that these
activities are the causes of deforestation that can lead to many negative
impacts even though there are many short-term benefits that can be obtained.


Secondly, poor
land management is one of the causes of deforestation too (Klissinger, 2002). Most
farmers use poor farming methods in order to meet the demands of food from the
consumers. For instance, they will use too much fertilizer and reduce the
fallow period, as they want to increase the production of food to fulfil the
needs of consumers. (Klissinger,
2002; McLeish, 2007).  They also
use the irrigation system, which is the application of controlled amounts of
water to plants at needed intervals, to ensure the growth of their plants. The
inefficiency of farming techniques and productivity happen since some of the
farmers only use old and outdated farm equipment due to the lack of funds.

Hence, it is obvious that poor land management is the cause of deforestation
even though the methods can meet the demands of the consumers.


The previous
paragraphs have discussed the causes of deforestation. Therefore, the next
paragraphs will discuss the effects of deforestation.


Firstly, poor
land management results in the damage of the quality of land (National Geography, 2009, para.

1). The infertility of soil occurs since the acids levels in the soil have
decreased due to the excess amount of fertiliser. The overuse of fertilisers
will lead to the contamination of water due to the release of nitrous oxide
during the denitrification process (Sustainable Baby Steps, 2018, para. 2). The contamination of
groundwater can affect humans’ health that is linked to gastric cancer and hypertension
(Sustainable Baby Steps,
2018, para. 2). The
nitrogen-based fertilizer can increases the percentage of nitrous oxide, which
led to the green house (Robert Sanders, 2012). These situations will raise the
temperature of earth above what it should be and lead to the increase in global
warming. Furthermore, infertility happens because farmers are not letting the
land rests for a sufficient time causing the soil to wear-out. Additionally,
the soil can no longer be used for farming since there is too much salt build
up in the soil because of the irrigation system (Klissinger, 2002). Irrigation systems decrease
the production of food as the quality of soil decreases and it becomes less
productive. As a result, it is clear that poor land management decreases the
quality of land and has many negative impacts on health as well as environment.


Next, the extinction
of plants including soil erosion will occur resulting from the legal and
illegal logging activities as well as farming activities. According to Golden and Miller (1994),
as the forests are cleared, the numbers of medicinal plants that have potentials
to cure countless diseases have decreased. 
Moreover, as the trees are not replanted, there are no trees to hold the
good soil, which can lead to soil erosion. Soil erosion removes the most
productive part of the soil for agricultural purposes, which is the topsoil (Queensland Government, 2016,
para. 2). The loss of the topsoil makes it very difficult or nearly
impossible to grow the new plants. The soil will quickly dry-out too since
there are no trees that can protect them from the sun. In addition, as a result
of overgrazing, the rainwater could not be absorbed by the soil because it is
compacted due to the impact of animals’ hooves. Furthermore, overgrazing also
led the regrowth of plants to become more difficult and slow since the root
system of native plants is damaged. The soil will keep drying because of the
insufficient amount of water and only fewer plants can grow. The land will
become less productive and less useful due to the overgrazing by farm animals.

As a result, it is clear that these long-term effects happen because of both
illegal and legal logging including farming activities.


Finally, millions
of species lose their habitats because of the deforestation. The logging of
forests means there are only a few trees left to block sunrays during the day
and hold in the heat at night (National Geographic, 2009, para. 2). This damaging disruption
leads to extreme temperature changes that are harmful to animals. Orangutans,
giant pandas and rhinoceros are the examples of animals that lost their habitats
as the forests have cleared (Emily
Holland, 2017, para. 3). The lost of the habitats can lead to the
extinction of the animals since many of them cannot survive the deforestation
that destroys their homes. Deforestation has destroyed many forests, and as a
consequence, many valuable species lose their natural surroundings.


To sum up, these
are the causes and effects of deforestation. It is obvious that logging and
farming activities, as well as poor land management, will lead to negative
effects. The negative effects are the damage to soil, the extinction of plants
and soil erosion including the loss of habitat. It is important to ensure the
sustainability of the forests, as it will be beneficial for future generations.



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strategic approach to academic reading (2nd edition). Cambridge:
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A. (2009). Diminishing resources:
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A. and Miller, M. (1994). Rainforest destruction has reached crisis
proportions, In Leone, B (Executive editor) Global
resource: opposing viewpoints. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press


E. (2002). “Which way will it go?” In Contemporary
Topics: 2. New York: Longman


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