The main objective of
this report is to provide an overview on the functioning of the golf course and
what the management has to deal with for operating effectively and efficiently.
It also focuses on how a golf course is affecting its country not only
economically but also socially and environmentally. This project deals with all kind of progress
and risks a country might face in creating a golf course. It assesses adequacy
and effectiveness of the system and to spread the awareness of the ecological
sensitive matters, a country has to face on development of a golf course. It
also draws our attention on how all individuals have to play their roles on a
sustainable future and use all resources efficiently for a greater good. The
report focuses on proper law and order which is needed and plays a crucial role
on the development of any individual, organization or a country.
The golf course has
significantly affected the economy of the country. Although whether the golf
course has or has not been successful is debatable.
On one side, it has
significantly helped to increase the countries financial position and standard
of living for the higher section of the society, whereas, on the other side it
has negatively affected the lower section of the society and the ecosystem
itself .To build the golf course a wide range of area has to be deprived of its
natural ecosystem. Sometimes it builds on the expense of the poor section of
the society, who thrives on their agriculture for living.
OF THAILAND’S GOLF COURSES
The golf course have
depleted the country’s limited water supply and the use of non-ecofriendly
pesticides have led to loss of habitat and have brought matter which are
ecologically sensitive . The development of golf course has made it easy to
draw easy money and have exponentially lead to increase in rate of tourism,
expatriates and the development of higher section of the society which has left
the lower section of the society unstable.
The development the
golf course also has led to increase in illegal and unethical activities such
as dumping of rocks and sand into the river to make the water level rise, so it
flows into their golf course; sexism to lure more customers for their branch
The country has also
witnessed at increase in mortality rate due to pesticides poisoning, which are
caused to the victims like caddies and course workers, also making the
surrounding environment unhealthy for the habitat and the citizens.
TRIPLE BOTTOM LINE
The Triple Bottom Line
Model includes Planet, People and Profit. Considering in terms of planet, it looks
into the environment aspect. There is extensive use of chemical pesticides
which depletes the water resources. This is a major cause of drought as all the
water resources are used to keep the golf courses green. Even the water from
the reservoirs is used for golf courses instead of using it for domestic needs.
It is causing harm to the fauna also as many birds are found dead most of the
time due to pesticides. Other concerns include Pollution of ground water and
surface water caused by the use of pesticides, fertilizers, and other contaminants,
poor stream water quality due to eroding shorelines , withdrawal of large quantities
of water for irrigation, degradation or loss of natural areas , health hazards from
chemical handling and applications, negative impacts of chemical use on
non-target wildlife, unsound turf management driven by increasing
and unrealistic golfer expectations and demands, loss and fragmentation of
wildlife habitats, alteration or damage to wetlands, replacement of natural
plant communities with intensively managed landscapes and non-native plants and
increased conflicts with wildlife.
Looking into the social
aspect of this, many people are suffering from skin diseases, dizziness and kidney
problems. The golf course superintendents suffer lung cancer, brain cancer,
large intestine and prostate cancer. It also gives a negative image of the Thai
women to the outside world as they are used to sell the country to the
Looking into the
financial aspect of it, it is definitely profitable as it attracts a lot of
tourists and golf lovers. It has increased the GDP of the country. Local golf
courses certainly generate impacts through expenditures, employment, and
payroll. Construction expenditures, operational expenditures, and dollars spent
by visiting golfers can all add income and jobs to the economy. The significant
point is that these courses generated local economic activity through
maintenance expenditures for fertilizers, herbicides, fuel, equipment repair,
topdressings, seed, sod, trees, shrubs, ornamentals and other items. There is
also a significant direct employment impact for accountants, caddies, club
managers, golf pros, golf teachers, secretaries, security, food/beverage
service and others.
All under consideration
the golf course has been very much successful leaving the lower section of the
society, habitat, ecology and humanity in danger. It has increased the GDP of the country but
definitely at the stake of its people and resources. Thai
government was successful to promote their economy and improve the standard of
living of their people. But if they consider some decisions towards the
well-being of people and environment it could be more successful.
OF CAMBODIAN OFFICIAL
Being a government
official from Cambodia, looking and studying about the golf courses in Thailand
I think a similar development will be good for the country. But definitely will
require a lot of changes in the policy and decisions so that it doesn’t have
the negative impacts that Thailand is facing. If sustainable practices are
followed then it can help to address the challenges faced. Opportunities for
improvement could be efficient use of water resources, energy, pollution
prevention and water quality protection. Key elements for water quality
protection include nutrient management, erosion control, and managing waste
water. There are many resources and best management practices available
regarding water quality protection for the golf course, impervious services,
hospitality services, buildings, etc.
Golf courses should
maximize the use of non-potable water to irrigate golf courses when
economically and practically feasible. Golf facilities should utilize
irrigation system audits as a means to increase the effectiveness of the
irrigation system and conserve water. Human factors should also be taken into
consideration. Studies suggest that being exposed to specific chemicals by
virtue of lifestyle and occupation can cause health problems. Licensed
pesticides applicators should be used to avoid these problems. People working
in the golf courses should be provided with protective clothing, equipment
since they are highly exposed to pesticides. Toxic fertilizers should not be used.
Following the Utilitarian
framework that says that morally correct actions are those that provide
the greatest volume of benefits over harm for the majority of people. In short
the greatest good for the greatest number. Being an official and after
analyzing all the aspects I feel there is a positive side to this as well which
is not brought into the light. The following highlights the benefits of turf,
trees and natural areas as commonly found on golf courses.
golf course ecosystem:
topsoil from water and wind erosion
and filters rain
health and reduces stress for more than 24.5 million golfers
and cleanses runoff in urban areas
pests (e.g. ticks and mosquitoes)
damaged land areas (e.g. former landfill or mining sites)
substantial contributions to the community’s economy
from being profitable, the golf course can also be used for other social
activities benefiting the community, like trails for jogging and cross-country
skiing or as concert space. The driving range at a golf course can be utilized
for gatherings, special events or outdoor shows. Area residents visiting the
course for entertainment may return for a lesson or even a round of golf.
teaches essential life skills to all who play the game skills such as
sportsmanship, respect, integrity, honesty and self-control. Just as when
joining any social club or organization, golf provides the opportunity to meet
new people, increase social interaction and learn essential life skills. Each
golf course has its own value, positively impacting its community and State
through jobs, taxes, charitable fundraising, hospitality/tourism and more.
is a challenging business and needs to be constantly evolved without having
negative impact. So being the local government official in Cambodia and looking
in depth into the golf course in Thailand, I would like a similar development
in my country but definitely without following their wrongs and by following all
the developments that are mentioned above. I would want a similar development
because I feel it is doing well to a larger number of people.
MORAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF GOLF COURSES MANAGER
Moral codes have
been a part of all societies. Managers are not legally bound to moral
responsibilities but if they adhere to them it will surely serve for the
betterment of all individuals, environment and country as a whole. No actions
or decisions of the managers should cause harm to the society or environment.
Moral responsibilities of mangers are to be accountable for all the right and
wrong decisions of the company.
According to me
fairness and honesty are the heart of business ethics and relate to the general
values of decision makers. The manager of the golf course should look into the
major factors like animal rights, pollution, deforestation, using of harmful
chemicals etc. employees should be provided with safe working space and
One of the moral
responsibilities of the manager is to provide equal opportunities for all
employees regardless of their age, gender, religion etc. They should provide
tools and equipment to the employees and also provide proper training to use
them. They should not be exposed to materials that can cause severe illness.
Managers should take up voluntary responsibility which means additional
activities that may not be required but will promote human welfare or goodwill.
Employees should be treated with respect and dignity. For example, female
employees should not be forwarded unethically to promote the business. It’s not
the right approach. Many of the illegal activities can be stopped by not doing
this. Dignity of women should be protected.
not use unfit products for cost saving. They should not engage in anything that
will damage the ecosystem. Inefficient use of resources can lead to
unsustainable development. According to me all this factors should be
considered otherwise the manager will be morally responsible for damages to the
Based on the report it
can be concluded that development of a golf course can be beneficial for a
countries growth economically and socially (not considering availability of resources).
If the country applies proper law and order and focuses on the environmental
issues and sees that everything is done legally and ethically. The study shows
that the golf courses are great financial asset for the country as it not only
supports the country in monetary terms but also preserves wild life habitat,
improves air quality and makes substantial contribution to community’s economy.
Apart from being profitable the golf course also promotes social activities
hence keeping the youth fit. Therefore a golf course can significantly affect a
developing country to improve their status and standard of living.
I would definitely
recommend most of the developing countries that don’t have much other scope of
growth or bringing finance to the economy. The introduction of a golf course
may lead to financial development and it may develop a higher status. It is
also suited for a under developed country who has the most of the resources to
make a golf course as it will increase their status and will be recognized
better.it is a good strategy to bring extra income for the country. Definitely
it shouldn’t abuse the environment and should use sustainable means. T would
recommend this because it will increase tourism, financial stability of the
economy, increase in standard of living of the people etc. But special care
should be taken of the employees of the golf courses in terms of their health
and safety at work. And in the context of environment resources shouldn’t be
overused especially water resources. Therefore I would like to recommend
strategizing and building a golf course, choosing a eco-friendly method which
promotes afforestation, wild life preservation, organic fertilizers etc. and
hope for a better sustainable future.