From undersell imports the original London quarto. The history

From 1782 to 1801, Great Britain supplied the
preliminary investment that got the trade off the ground and the texts
Americans printed. Not even the war could alter the fact that London was the epicenter
of English-language book culture and America was on the ascent. The leading purposefulness
of the American book trade was to replace British imports with its own publication
of the same editions. However, it turned out to be a challenging objective to
accomplish. During the war, barely any textbooks were printed with the renowned
exception of the Bible printed in 1782 by the Scot Robert Aitken in
Philadelphia. This was the first English Bible with an American imprint.

Aitken claimed he was nearly ruined by the venture, because he was paid in
worthless paper money and because the advent of peace precipitated an
avalanche of cheap imported Bibles. British merchants continued to dump books
in America for the rest of the 1780s as the American economy slumped. In 1784
Thomas Dobson arrived in Philadelphia from Scotland with large stocks of
books. He quickly became major bookseller, but as he sold his books, instead
of investing their profit in more books, he embarked on publishing, using his
stock as security for additional loans. His first large venture was
appropriately the first American edition of Adam Smith’s Wealth of
Nations in 1788. To undersell imports the original London quarto.

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The history of newspapers is an
often-dramatic chapter of the human experience going back some five
centuries. The first printed forerunners of the newspaper appeared in Germany
in the late 1400’s in the form of news pamphlets, often highly embellished in
content. The new printing press altered the extent and influence of the
newspaper, paving the way for modern-day journalism. The first weekly
newspapers to employ Gutenberg’s press transpired in 1609. In Renaissance
Europe, handwritten newsletters were distributed confidentially among
wholesalers, passing along information about everything from wars and
economic conditions to social customs and “human interest”
features. Although the papers did not name the cities in which they were
printed to avoid government oppression, their precise location can be
acknowledged because of their use of the German language. Despite these
concerns over oppression, the papers were a success, and newspapers quickly
spread throughout Central Europe. In England, newspapers were unhindered from
government control, and people began to recognize and appreciate the power of
free press. Papers took benefit of this newfound freedom and began publishing
more frequently. With biweekly publications, papers had extra space to run
advertisements and market reports. This changed the responsibility of
journalists from simple observers to active players in commerce, as business
owners and investors developed a reliability on the papers to market their
products and to help them predict business developments. Once publishers
noticed the growing popularity and profit potential of newspapers, they
founded daily publications. Newspapers did not come to the American colonies
until September 25, 1690, when Benjamin Harris printed Public Occurrences,
before escaping to America for publishing an article about a purported
Catholic plot against England, Harris had been a newspaper editor in England.

Fourteen years passed before the next American newspaper, The Boston
News-Letter, launched. Fifteen years after that, The Boston Gazette began
publication, followed immediately by the American Weekly Mercury in
Philadelphia. Newspaper organizations remain relevant because they publish
news and information and get it out to the world when readers want it
newspapers are there for their readers, providing timely reports of events as
they happen. But the headlines and timely reports are only part of the job.

Readers want to know not just “what happened,” they want to know “how” and
“why,” and they want to understand the inferences surrounding the event.

In modern society, radios are common
technology in the vehicle and at home. In fact, in today’s world one would be
floored if they found anyone who has not heard a radio within his or her
life. This was not always the case. Before the 19th century, wireless radio interaction
was a thing of fantasy. Even after the development of the radio in the late
1800s, it took many years before radios went mainstream and became a
household fixture. The history of the radio is a fascinating one that changed
how the world linked and transferred from distances both far and near. With
World War I the importance of the radio became apparent and its usefulness
increased significantly. During the war, the military used it almost
exclusively and it became an invaluable tool in sending and receiving
messages to the armed forces. In the 1920s, following the war, radios began
to increase in popularity amongst civilians. Across the U.S. and Europe,
broadcasting stations such as KDKA in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and England’s
British Broadcasting Company (BBC) was on the rise. In 1920 the Westinghouse
Company got a commercial radio license which allowed for the creation of
KDKA. KDKA would then become the first radio station officially certified by
the government. It was also a collecting source and was used by the
government to achieve public support. The way in which radio was used also
changed the world after World War II. While it had been a source of
entertainment in the form of serial programs, it began to focus more on
playing the music of the time. The “Top-40” in music became popular
and the target audience went from families to pre-teens up to adults in their
mid-thirties. Music and radio continued to rise in popularity until they
became synonymous with one another. FM radio stations began to overtake the
original AM stations, and new forms of music, such as rock and roll, began to
emerge. Today radio has become much more than anyone could have ever
imagined. Traditional radios and radio broadcasting have steadily become a
thing of the past. Instead it has steadily evolved with more satellite radio
and Internet radio stations. Radios are found not only in homes, but they are
also a staple in vehicles. In addition to music, radio talk shows have also
become a popular option for many.

Before 1947 the number of U.S. homes with
television sets could be measured in the thousands. By the late 1990s, 98 percent
of U.S. homes had at least one television set, and those sets were on for an
average of more than seven hours a day. The typical American spends
(depending on the survey and the time of year) from two-and-a-half to almost
five hours a day watching television. It is significant not only that this
time is being spent with television but that it is not being spent engaging
in other activities, such as reading or going out or socializing. Electronic
television was first successfully demonstrated in San Francisco on Sept. 7,
1927. The system was designed by Philo Taylor Farnsworth, a 21-year-old
inventor who had lived in a house without electricity until he was 14. While
still in high school, Farnsworth had begun to conceive of a system that could
capture moving images in a form that could be coded onto radio waves and then
transformed back into a picture on a screen. Boris Rosing in Russia had
conducted some crude experiments in transmitting images 16 years before
Farnsworth’s first success. A mechanical television system, which scanned
images using a rotating disk with holes arranged in a spiral pattern, had
been demonstrated by John Logie Baird in England and Charles Francis Jenkins
in the United States earlier in the 1920s. However, Farnsworth’s invention,
which scanned images with a beam of electrons, is the direct ancestor of
modern television. The first image he transmitted on it was a simple line.

RCA, the company that dominated the radio business in the United States with
its two NBC networks, invested $50 million in the development of electronic
television. To direct the effort, the company’s president, David Sarnoff,
hired the Russian-born scientist Vladimir Kosma Zworykin, who had
participated in Rosing’s experiments. In 1939, RCA televised the opening of
the New York World’s Fair, including a speech by President Franklin Delano
Roosevelt, who was the first president to appear on television. Later that
year RCA paid for a license to use Farnsworth’s television patents. RCA began
marketing television sets with 5 by 12 in picture tubes. The company also
began broadcasting regular programs, including scenes captured by a mobile
unit and, on May 17, 1939, the first televised baseball game between
Princeton and Columbia universities. By 1941 the Columbia Broadcasting System
(CBS), RCA’s main competition in radio, was broadcasting two 15-minute
newscasts a day to a tiny audience on its New York television station.

Every day we are exposed to a lifestyle
depicted in films, to shows, billboards and commercials. We see people
outfitted a certain way, living life “to the fullest” in a certain lifestyle.

Unfortunately, these characters are created to market certain products or
raise ratings. Often what is portrayed may not be aligned with reality and
yet we may feel that.  All media and advertising is not necessarily
deceptive. The existence of bias in news media is well known. Indeed, it is
so common that several websites are established to spot and report the bias
in news. A link between subscription fees and media bias shown that when
readers prefer news consistent with their political opinions, newspapers
slant news toward extreme positions to alleviate price competition for
subscribers. For many media outlets, however, most of the revenue stems from
advertising rather than subscription.  When making advertising choices,
advertisers evaluate both the size and the composition of the readership of
the different outlets. The profile of the readers matters because advertisers
want to target readers who are likely to be receptive to their advertising
messages. A biased media effects what we think the truth is. It nudges us
towards or away from ideas, action, philosophy that we might choose or not
choose otherwise. The outcome of a biased media is manipulation. It encourages
ignorance and emotion over understanding and considered action. A biased
media could be the factor that influences any number of outcomes.

 

 

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