Introduction etiological factors of malocclusion, this may include inherited

Introduction

     Malocclusion is defined as the condition when the dental arches are
mal-related to each other or there is irregularity in teeth positions beyond
the normal limits (Walther et al., 1994), it is mostly a developmental
condition rather than pathological (Meer et al., 2016) and according to
WHO, dental malocclusion comes in the third place after dental caries and
periodontal disease as the most prevalent oral pathosis (WHO, 1962).

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     There are
many suggested etiological factors of malocclusion, this may include inherited
traits such as abnormal teeth number, form, jaw size and form, or acquired due
to habits such as nails biting, thumb sucking and premature loss of predecessor’s
teeth or in retained deciduous and delayed eruption of permanent one, or combination
of both causes (G Dale, 1985).

     As a result of malocclusion, dental caries and periodontal diseases
might be initiated (Greiger, 2001) and due to the unpleasant dentofacial
appearance, some psychosocial problems might be developed (Kenealy et al.,
1989). Malocclusion could also have unfavorable effects on oral functions
including: mastication, swallowing, and speech (Proffit and Fields, 2000). Furthermore,
if malocclusion remains untreated it will increase
incidence of temporomandibular joint disorders (Housten, 2000). A study was
conducted in Abah city, Saudi Arabia has reported that 42.8% of 250 patients
attending dental clinics had a definitive degree of malocclusion, and the
prevalence of TMD among them was 41.6% (Haralur et al., 2014).

     So since malocclusion
may affect patient’s functions and appearance, it is better to be identified
and treated at early stages to avoid more complications (ADA, adopted 1995,
Revised 1997) and to give more favorable prognosis (Adib, et al., 2010).

    According to numerous previous studies, the prevalence
of malocclusion is widely various among several populations around the whole
world, these variations may be due to the different age, number and ethnicity
of the studied populations (Abu Alhaija et al., 2005). Another important
factor that could be contributed in the variations of malocclusion, is the
diverse registration methods (Mtaya et al., 2009). “Pattern of skeletal
and dental malocclusions in Saudi orthodontic patients differs, based on the
variability of the methods used to assess the anteroposterior jaw-base
relationship” (Aldrees, 2012).

Table
1 is taken as it is form a previous study, it is showing the various prevalence
of malocclusion in different populations, with different age, using dissimilar
registration methods (Mtaya et al., 2009).

x

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