Introduction of tsunamis are generated due to undersea landslidea

Introduction

 

 

 

Tsunami
is a natural disaster which can cause lots of damages to coastal areas. Sri-Lanka
has an unpleasant experience on tsunamis on 26th of December 2004. A large tsunami
which was generated by a massive undersea earthquake in Sunda trench with
magnitude of 9.1 stroke the island on this day and 38,000 people lost their
lives due to lack of knowledge about tsunamis.

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The word
“tsunami” comes from two Japanese words meant “Harbour Wave”. A tsunami is a
series of huge waves created due to an abrupt movement on the ocean which can
be resulted from an earthquake, an underwater landslide, a volcanic eruption or
rarely a large meteorite strike – 7% of tsunamis are generated due to undersea
landslidea and submarine landslides. Usually most of the tsunamis have been
resulted due to earthquakes. According to the seismologists earthquakes greater
than 7.0 in Richter scale cause major tsunami situations. Most of the
earthquakes generated in Subduction zones are responsible for these tsunami
incidents. Tsunami waves are small when they are in Open Ocean and become
larger when they reach shallow water. Waves up to 9 meters high have been
recorded and up to 30 meters high waves are believed to have occurred in the
past.

 

Problem Statement

 

 

 

After
the 2004 tsunami happened,Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System was stablished
and rapidly developed and they giving warning and forcasts to National Tsunami
Warning System. In Sri Lanka, NTWC is the Sri Lanka Department of Meteorology. They
hold responsibility of tsunami and mitigation. After 2004, Department of Meteorology gave tsunami
warnings on 28 March 2005 (Richter scale 8.6), 12 September 2007 (Richter Scale
8.4) and 11 April 2011 (Richter Scale 8.2). But Department of Meteorology doesnot
have better database and they cannot give warnings immediately. Beacause of that
Sri Lanka needs a better database to save people and properties.

 

Significance of the research

 

 

 

In terms
of Sri Lanka there are two main Subduction zones in East and West direction of
the country known as “Sunda Arc” which is located in the north-eastern Indian
Ocean and “Makran Arc” which is located along the north-eastern margin.  These two zones are mainly responsible for
tsunamis that can affect Sri Lanka. As Sri-Lanka is 1000-2000 km away from
these zones, Sri-Lanka will experience far field tsunamis. Therefroe enough
time for evacuation is available. But we need to take precise evacuation
decisions and  we need to establish
proper early warning system to mitigate adverse effects. Also false tsunami
alarms implies the need of acurate early warninng system. 

 

 

 

 

 

Scope of the study

 

 

 

The research is
mainly conducted to assess the exposure of Sri Lankan Western coast for
potential Tsunamis generated in Sundra Trench and Makran fault. And mainly
Colombo harbor area is concerned.Introduction

 

 

 

Tsunami
is a natural disaster which can cause lots of damages to coastal areas. Sri-Lanka
has an unpleasant experience on tsunamis on 26th of December 2004. A large tsunami
which was generated by a massive undersea earthquake in Sunda trench with
magnitude of 9.1 stroke the island on this day and 38,000 people lost their
lives due to lack of knowledge about tsunamis.

 

The word
“tsunami” comes from two Japanese words meant “Harbour Wave”. A tsunami is a
series of huge waves created due to an abrupt movement on the ocean which can
be resulted from an earthquake, an underwater landslide, a volcanic eruption or
rarely a large meteorite strike – 7% of tsunamis are generated due to undersea
landslidea and submarine landslides. Usually most of the tsunamis have been
resulted due to earthquakes. According to the seismologists earthquakes greater
than 7.0 in Richter scale cause major tsunami situations. Most of the
earthquakes generated in Subduction zones are responsible for these tsunami
incidents. Tsunami waves are small when they are in Open Ocean and become
larger when they reach shallow water. Waves up to 9 meters high have been
recorded and up to 30 meters high waves are believed to have occurred in the
past.

 

Problem Statement

 

 

 

After
the 2004 tsunami happened,Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System was stablished
and rapidly developed and they giving warning and forcasts to National Tsunami
Warning System. In Sri Lanka, NTWC is the Sri Lanka Department of Meteorology. They
hold responsibility of tsunami and mitigation. After 2004, Department of Meteorology gave tsunami
warnings on 28 March 2005 (Richter scale 8.6), 12 September 2007 (Richter Scale
8.4) and 11 April 2011 (Richter Scale 8.2). But Department of Meteorology doesnot
have better database and they cannot give warnings immediately. Beacause of that
Sri Lanka needs a better database to save people and properties.

 

Significance of the research

 

 

 

In terms
of Sri Lanka there are two main Subduction zones in East and West direction of
the country known as “Sunda Arc” which is located in the north-eastern Indian
Ocean and “Makran Arc” which is located along the north-eastern margin.  These two zones are mainly responsible for
tsunamis that can affect Sri Lanka. As Sri-Lanka is 1000-2000 km away from
these zones, Sri-Lanka will experience far field tsunamis. Therefroe enough
time for evacuation is available. But we need to take precise evacuation
decisions and  we need to establish
proper early warning system to mitigate adverse effects. Also false tsunami
alarms implies the need of acurate early warninng system. 

 

 

 

 

 

Scope of the study

 

 

 

The research is
mainly conducted to assess the exposure of Sri Lankan Western coast for
potential Tsunamis generated in Sundra Trench and Makran fault. And mainly
Colombo harbor area is concerned.

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