Introduction plant roots supply essential minerals and newly synthesized

Introduction

Bio-fertilizer

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Bio-fertilizer is a substance which contains live or
latent cells of micro-organisms which are applied to seeds or plants or soils
to fix different nutrients and make available to the plant. There are different
types of bio fertilizers used like Azatobactor, Acetobactor, Azospirrilum, PSb,
KSB etc.

 

Rhizobium

Rhizobiums are symbiotic bacteria that fix
atmospheric N gas in plant root nodules and have a mutually helpful
relationship with their host plants. The plant roots supply essential minerals
and newly synthesized substances to the bacteria.

Azotobacters

 It is free
living and non-symbiotic nitrogen fixing organism that also produces certain
substances good for the growth of plants and antibodies that suppress many root
pathogens. Azotobacter can also produce antifungal compounds to fight against
many plant pathogens.

Azospirillum

This is also a nitrogen-fixing micro organism
beneficial for non-leguminous plants. Azospirillum transcend nitrogen
enrichment through production of growth promoting substances.

Phosphate-solubilizing
bacteria (PSB)

Under acidic or calcareous soil conditions, large
amounts of phosphorus are fixed in the soil but are unavailable to the plants.
Phosphobacterins can make insoluble phosphorus available to the plant.

Vesicular
arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM)

VAM fungi infect and spread inside the root. They
possess special structures known as vesicles and arbuscules. The plant roots
transmit substances to the fungi, and the fungi aid in transmittin gnutrients
and water to the plant roots.

Bio-Fertilizer in India

 

 

Major Companies In Bio-Fertilizer Business

1.   
Coromandel Fertilizers

2.   
Hindustan Biotech

3.   
Ajay Biotech

4.   
Tata Rallies

5.   
Saraswati Agro

6.   
International Biotech

7.   
Amar Biotech

8.   
Biostadt

9.   
KVK’s

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Profile
of Baramati Taluka

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The total geographical
area (TGA) of Baramati tahsil is 1382 sq. km., which is about 8.80 percent of
TGA of the Pune district. The population of
Baramati as per the census of 2011 is 54,415. among them about 28 thousand
(51%) are male and about 27 thousand (49%) are female.

The
population of baramati is mostly depend on the agriculture for the major income
source. The land of the baramati region is well irrigated because of the Nira
left canal, Nira river and karhamai river.

The
major crops grown in the area are Sugarcane. Jowar, Wheat, Maize, Grapes and
Pomegranate. Among this Sugarcane is the major crop because there are three
sugar factories namely Chatrapati sugar factory in Bhavani-Nagar, Malegaon
Co-op sugar factory Malegaon and Someshwar sugar Factory someshwarNagar.

Along
with that due to the presence of KVK near baramati is helping a farmer through
various new technologies and solutions which is the great contributor in the
agricultural development of Baramati .

Major Crops

Name of Crop

Percent area

Jowar

20

Sugarcane

21.25

Bajara

19.2

Wheat

15.76

Fodder crops

12.71

Oilseeds

2.85

Pulses

3.08

Fruits

4

Vegetables

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

List of Villages in Baramati Tehsil

 

 

Review of Literature

Naidu et al. (2002) recorded the influence of
organic manures, chemical and biofertilizers on growth, yield and economics of
brinjal. They observed that organic manure when applied in conjunction with
Azospirillum yielded greater number of fruits with higher girth over nitrogen
with organic manure.

 It is due to
better mobilization of plant nutrients particularly N and P during later stage
of plant growth. It was also noticed that application of organic manure in
combination with Azospirillum yielded at par with N from organic manure.

 

Sharma (2002) studied the effect of Azospirillum and
different doses of nitrogen on yield of cabbage. The treatments included 3
levels of biofertilizers and 4 levels of nitrogen. Azospirillum application
significantly increased the number and weight of non-wrapper leaves per plant,
head length and width, gross and net weight of head per plant and yield/ha. A
treatment combination of Azospirillum application with 60 kg N/ha resulted in
maximum yields/ha with benefit : cost ratio 2.9.

 

In a study conducted by Devi et al. (2003) on
cabbage, it was revealed among the various treatments including application of
poultry manure and biofertilizers with Azospirillum brassilense could save 25
per cent nitrogen where cost benefit ratio was 1:4.30.

 

Gupta and Samnotra (2004) reported 25 per cent
reduction in nitrogen application when Azotobacter and Azospirillum were used
as the organic source of nitrogen in cabbage.

 

 

 

Research Problem

1.    
Due to excess use of chemical
fertilizers the lands are degrading day by day.

2.    
Environment is getting affected due to
use of chemical fertilizers

3.    
So there is need of find out the
challenges and opportunities for use of Bio-fertilizers.

Objectives

1.   
To find out how many farmers are using
the Bio-fertilizers

2.   
To study farmers awareness about
Bio-fertilizers

3.   
To find out the challenges for use of
Bio-fertilizers in Baramati Region

4.   
What are the opportunities for
Biofertilizer in the study area

 

Background
of the Study

After
Green Revolution in India the agricultural production booms at a very high rate
due to the use of chemical fertilizers and new varieties. From that time the
whole India diverted to the use of chemicals in agriculture and it benefitted a
lot, but it showing the negative impact of that in current situation on
productivity of land, Degradation of land, Quality of produce etc.

But the dependence of
agriculture on chemical uses will harm the agriculture to a greater extent and
loss the soil quality.

For that the Government
of India promoting the use of Bio-fertilizers in agriculture. These
Bio-fertilizers have multiple benefits on the soil and it is also easy to use
and cheaper in price.

These Bio-fertilizers
are naturally occurring in nature and used 100 years ago as a naturally
occurring manure, In ancient times farmers were using but they don’t know the
composition but they use to apply in field and they known its benefits.

But in recent years the
agriculture is went towards chemicals which are synthetic and prepared in the
chemical laboratories, it increased a yield but in recent 10 years it is
showing negative impact on different factors like soil, environment, human
health, animal health and  on future
growth also.

Due to that the farmers
are again interested in Bio-fertilizers as a option for synthetic chemical
fertilizers.

 

Research Methodology

 

The study includes the
farmers survey against the Awareness, use, problems in Bio-fertilizers use was
carried out in Month of December 2017.

The topic was selected
with the discussion with mentor with the some objectives. Objectives of survey
are to find the awareness and use of Bio-fertilizers in the Baramati region.

 

Sources of Data

Primary and Secondary
data is collected to meet the specified objectives of the research

Primary Data

Primary data were
collected from the farmers of different villages with the help of Questionnaire.
The questions like Land holding, Crops grown, Bio-fertilizers using or not,
reasons for not using  of
Bio-fertilizers, which Bio-fertilizers used, Reasons, Benefits of
Bio-fertilizer using, Awareness of Bio-fertilizers etc.

 And also asked for their suggestions on
Bio-fertilizers and what needs to be done to improve the use of
Bio-fertilizers.

Secondary Data

Secondary data about
Bio-fertilizers were collected from different websites, government websites,
pages and research papers to know the sector very well and to see the what  happened in the recent years.

 

 

 

Sampling Method

For the research
Baramati region has been selected and from Baramati taluka 10 villages has been
selected and from each village 15 farmers were selected randomly for the study.

 

Sample size

From the Baramati
region randomly 10 villages has been selected and from each village 15 farmers
selected on random basis.

So total sample size is
150 farmers for the study as a representative sample.

 

Research Method

A structured
questionnaire were prepared with the help of faculty mentor to record the
information given by the farmers . Questionnaire was filled by myself as per
information given by the farmers.  

 

Tools used for Analysis

1.    
Microsoft Excel
for entry of Data

2.    
Use of different
charts and bars to show the results.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Data Analysis

In baramati region near
about 80% land under the use of chemical fertilizers and remaining 20% is under
the use of Bio-fertilizers.

Land Holding of Farmers

Name

Land
Holding

Marginal

5
Ha

 

 

 

The graph shows that the
maximum farmers having land holding of small (less than 1 Ha) i.e. 55%

45% farmers having
medium land holding i.e.2-5 Ha.

The land holding is
more per farmer in the baramati region due to the very well irrigation
facilities, market availability, due to this farmers having more land holding.
These large farmers are come under the innovators in rogers model so these
farmers can use Bio-fertilizers in the future.

Users and Non-users of Biofertilizers

 

 

It shows that there are
only 23% farmers are using Bio-fertilizers which are medium and large farmers.

And 77% farmers are not
using Bio-fertilizers because of many reasons like non awareness, Availability
etc.

But there are good
opportunities for fertilizer companies to cater to this segment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Which Companies Bio-fertilizers Using

 

 

 

In baramati region
maximum farmers using the Bio-fertilizers of KVK Baramati because the maximum
awareness made by them and every farmer is connected with KVK.

The other companies
having very little share in Bio-fertilizers.

Baramati KVK is
providing guidance along with Bio-fertilizers that’s why the farmers are more
using the KVK given products .

 

 

 

 

 

Reasons for Using Biofertilizers

Many farmers are using the
Bio-fertilizers because of the high yield they are getting by using
Bio-fertilizers, some farmers are using because they are getting at lower
prices than the chemical fertilizers, some are using because it is convenient
in using and many farmers has given the other minor reasons

When they use
Bio-fertilizers the Bio-fertilizer fixes the atmospheric nitrogen, fixes the
phosphate with minimum cost and increases yield upto 30%.

Due to this 15% farmers
are using because of higher yield.

 

Awareness of  Bio-fertilizers

In baramati region
awareness of Bio-fertilizers is 63%. Still there 37%  farmers are unaware about Bio-fertilizers.

So in this region need
of conducting awareness campaigns.

 

How farmers get Aware of Bio-fertilizers

 

 

In this region major
awareness made by the KVK Baramati, Biggest contribution in the Biofertilizer
is made by the KVK Baramati.

In some amount dealers
and co farmers are making awareness among the fellow farmers.

It is showing that KVK
is working very well in Bio-fertilizer sector

 

 

  

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