Major faulty Reading HabitsImproved comprehension almost always results from eliminating bad reading habits. PR can quickly help individuals end the following eighteen bad reading habits:1. Poor decoding. 2. Poor automaticity. 3. Poor fluency. This includes rushing past commas instead of pausing (which can produce situational dyslexia, easily corrected). 4. Guessing when stumped instead of backing up and sounding out text (trying different possible pronunciations if necessary): a. An individual word. b. Cognitive dissonance. c. Cognitive projection.5. Cognitive projection as one reads regularly.6. No or poor use of auditory memory.7. No or poor use of visual memory.8. No thinking about what the sentence means.9. No sensing music of sentence.10. No hearing an inner voice.11. Sub vocalization and lip reading; not reading fast enough.12. Reading too fast.13. No outlining (for preview and use during reading or review).14. No review as one reads by having each sentence repeated15. Blaming real physical issues for what is often just a simple lack of proper modeling: lisp, speech defect.16. Poor and limited use of dictionary due to six problems which are easily corrected.17. Improper lighting of text; contrast and brightness problems.18. Physical discomfort while reading/typing (easily corrected): a. Books are not automatically held open at the right height and distance while you sit upright and relaxed, with proper neck, back and shoulder support (instead, reader crouches over book). b. Head must be turned back and forth from paper to monitor when typing. Keyboard, monitor and printed text should all be in-line.19. Reading Late at Night: This is commonly done by college students, especially with their textbooks. This is the least effective time to read for many people, and results in poor concentration, a slow reading rate, and reduced reading comprehension. 20. Reading Without a Specific Purpose: If you don’t have a specific purpose for reading the material, your mind will wander and your reading speed and comprehension will be reduced. Are you reading for main ideas or for details? 21. Reading in the Wrong Environment: If you read in bed, don’t be surprised when you fall asleep while reading. Is the room warm? Do you have soft music in the background? These will all hurt your reading. 22. Reading Again What You’ve Just Read: This is known as “regression” and not only hurts your reading speed, but makes reading an unpleasant task. 23. Reading By Saying the Words in Your Head: This is known as “sub vocalization.” Effective readers don’t read words inside their heads; they read with little or no subvocalization. 24. Reading Everything at the Same Speed: A common faulty habit. Some materials must be read faster than others. In other words, you must be flexible with your reading speed. 25. Reading Details Before Main Ideas: Without reading main ideas first, known as skimming or surveying, it is much more difficult to understand the organization of what you are reading and to assimilate the details in your memory. 26. Reading with a Yellow Highlighter: One of the least effective ways to do your reading and studying. Highlighting creates a false sense of security that you really understood what you highlighted. The result: A second reading is almost always required. 27. Reading Everything Line by Line: While some materials must be read line by line, the majority of materials require a combination of skimming, scanning, and line by line reading. Without combining reading techniques, your reading is almost guaranteed to be slow and your comprehension reduced. 28. Reading Head movement.Without Time Limits: Giving yourself unlimited time to complete your reading results in inefficient reading and mind wandering. In fact, allowing yourself too much time will not only reduce your reading speed but your reading comprehension as well. Finger movement: -Some students move their finger along the line as they read. This slow down reading speed as the reader’s eye is inhibited by the movement of the finger as it speps and touch’s individual word.Some students make unnecessary head movement as they read .This also inhibits reading speed since the eyes are denied natural fination .Regression :-It means backward eye movements. The reader is reading and his eyes sweeping forward and continuously advancing. Suddenly he moves back his eyes to check previous words. When this is repeated again and again the speed of reading slow down.Vocalization:-Vocalization means reading aloud which is useful at primary stages where the aim of reading is fluency and correct pronunciation. But at the stage of silent reading, It is considered to be faulty reading habit. Reading is much slower than the silent reading as our eyes move faster than our tongue. If a reader vocalizes, he will tend to read word by word instead of in sense group.To really get rid of a bad habit, you should replace it with a good one. You want to get rid of the bad habits, and you must practice and work at it in order to change. The following are some of the bad habits which tend to cause people to read slowly.Ask yourself whether you are guilty of any of the following:A) Moving your lips when you read: -Moving your lips slows you to a fast-talking rate, about 150 words per minute. Put your fingers on your lips to stop the motion.B) Vocalizing: – Vocalizing means that you are pronouncing words in the voice box of the throat without making sounds. This also slows your reading rate to that of speaking. To check, rest your fingertips lightly against the vocal cord area of your throat. If you feel a vibration, or if you find that your tongue is moving, you are vocalizing.C) Reading everything at the same speed: – When reading, set your rate according to your purpose for reading and the difficulty level of the material. Practice adjusting your rate to suit your material. The more difficult the material, the slower the rate.D) Regressing out of habit: – Regressing means rereading a word, phrase, or sentence out of habit and not because of need. Sometimes, it is necessary to reread something, especially in a difficult passage. But habitual, unnecessary regressing really slows you down. Use a card or paper to cover the text after you read it to prevent regressing.E) Reading one word at a time: – Do you think one word at a time, or in phrases? Slow readers tend to see only one word at a time. Good readers will see several words at a time and their eyes will stop only three or four times as they move across a page. Reading in idea-phrases speeds your reading and improves your understanding of what you have read. Mark the phrases in the sentences of a passage, then practice seeing more than one word at a time.The best way to read faster is to practice reading just a little faster than is comfortable. Changing reading habits is not easy, after all you have been reading that way for many years. It takes several weeks of conscious effort in order to change bad reading habits. For more information on increasing reading speed, contact the Center for Academic Success.