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My topic is about the protest that against Vietnam War in domestic, the paper will be focus the topic on the United States. The Vietnam War is one of the biggest war that happened in Unit States’ history. It involves over half a million human resources in the United States military personnel on active duty during the official Vietnam War. During the Vietnam War, a protest occurs in the United States domestic. The protest first happened at 1964 in U.S university as a small-scale, then it starts growing as nation-wide. Each part of the society made effort on protest against the War. The question then becomes how did the American population protest against the Vietnam War? It starts with peace, the it erupted into violence. The purpose of this paper is to explore about the time, the place, the reason why would American starts the protests, and what were their purposes about the protests, what things they done to protest against the Vietnam War.  Historical Perspective  The Vietnam War occurred from November 1955 to April 1975, the first military platoon was sent to the war against the Communists in Vietnam in 1950. In August 1964, an American ship on a spy mission got attacked by North Vietnamese patrol boats, Johnson proclaimed that the United States was a victim of “aggression”. Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin resolution, and that is how the United States came to a formal declaration of war. The manner of United States was to prevent the Vietnam from control by Communism. “The war had stopped much of the Great Society, and it tore families, universities and the Democratic Party apart. Even the entire political leadership sports the war, for the most of the 1960s, young activists lost their confidence in “the system””. (Conner 2017). Therefore, all the people who had doubts on the government gather around to become the Anti-war movement. People thought that Vietnam war was using all of the resource that the United States needed. Young activists thought that the Vietnam war was opposite of participatory democracy, they were burning their draft cards and would run away to Canada to avoid the war which they thought was an unjust war.    This resource is very important because it shows how the United States get involved in the Vietnam war and the manner of the United States. To be able to know how people protest against the Vietnam war, first things to know is why people protest against the Vietnam war.   There were a lot of celebrities who stood up and gave their voice to the public for protest during the Vietnam War. One of the most impressive historical athlete is Muhammad Ali. Ali is one of the greatest boxing athletes in the world, but he lost his boxing license after he had refused to join the U.S Army. Ali’s protest turned out pretty bad, he lost his job and it almost ruined his life. ” He had been an indictment by a grand jury, and the final consequence was that he went to prison for five years, and got a $10,000 fine” (Ali 1967). Even though he finally returned to his boxing career in 1970; the consequence of his protest is still a disaster that happened in his life.   Muhammad Ali has a lot of reason of why he refused to join the Army, he wrote a statement to the public in 1967 before he was inducted into the milltary. One reason Ali pointed was about the race, he stated that “Why should they ask me to put on a uniform…while so-called Negro people in Louisville are treated like dogs and denied simple human rights” (Ali 1967). His consideration was valid, but many black Americans were still second-class citizens during the 1960s. He thought that there was no reason to fight for this country when he and many black Americans did not even have equal rights. He even thought that to help the United States fight the Vietnam was just going to make more slave for the white slave masters.   Further, Ali thought that the real war is not in Vietnam but the United States. As he stated, “The real enemy of my people is right here” (Ali 1967). During the 1960s, the race issue in United States society was rising to the climax. Ali claimed that the race issues in the United States was the most important things to the government of the United States, and also for all the U.S citizens that they need to be concerned about. In his opinion, the Vietnam War wasn’t even the right thing to do. Ali thought that Vietnamese were fighting for “their own justice, freedom, and equality” (Ali 1967). Ali wants to stay in the United States to fight for the race that getting inequality treat, rather than to destroy other’s equality.   What Muhammad Ali did was very brave, even that made he lost his champion title and almost destroy his life. He stood up and fought for the community, equality, freedom. It is very important because Muhammad Ali’s move for refuse to fight in Vietnam had an impact on the young population, it even affects the United States society today. Before Ali spokes out his attitude on the war, the majority of the American population still believes in the war. After Ali’s movement, the mind of the population seems to shift on the Anti-war side. Ali is not just a sports hero but also anti-war hero.   Analysis Not only did Muhammad Ali stood up and gave his voice to the society, but Martin Luther King is also one of the most influential protesters that gave his voice to the society of United States. Martin Luther King had released a statement against the Vietnam War, and it is “Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break the Silence”. Not just talked about the issue that Muhammad Ali did, he also talked about the issue that what the War brings to the Vietnamese.   King’s protest against the War was one of the biggest impacts that made to end the War. People remember King as the Civil rights leader, but not many people remember what he has done to against the Vietnam War. King had the speech at a church in New York, and it gathers around thousands of people. King’s view of  Vietnam War impacted a lot of people, that how he wants to brings everyone in the same place. King thought that people should be free and equality, not just in the United States but the whole world. He gives people the idea of the “global village”, that everyone in the village matters. It is no different from race, political party, or country. Everyone should be free and equal. As he said, “Beyond the calling of race or nation or creed is this vocation of sonship and brotherhood…” (King). He thought that the allegiances and loyalties to all the human being are more important to the “nationalism”, or “nation’s self-defined goals and positions”.   Martin Luther King’s speech and opinion were widespread among people in the United States, and it made an effort for more people join the protest to against the Vietnam War. It is very important for the society because Martin Luther King is one of the most impact Civil rights leader, his voice is loud enough to convince or to make people listen. He spoke for black soldiers who couldn’t get any rights in the United States but needs to sacrifice themselves in the war, and also resources for anti-poverty programs. Eventually, King’s movements and rallies were not effective on ending the war, he was assassinated in Memphis in 1968 one year after his Anti-war speech. Anyhow, King’s speech still had a big impact on people, and that was the success part, King leads and guides American population to protest the Vietnam War.   It is very important to the society even King’s speech did not go well on the political part, but it also had a big impact on people. The anti-war demonstration in New York in April 1967, gather around 100,000 to 125,000 people. Martin Luther King Jr. and Benjamin had speeches for people’s right. It changed society by giving out the ideas of Anti-war movement and it had the impact on what happened afterward. If King’s relationship with his former ally Lyndon Johnson did not break, he would have been successful. If the government did listen or follow what King said, it would have saved thousands of lives.   Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) was a student activist movement in the United States, Paul Potter was the president of the SDS. He had a speech on Anti-war movement, which he calling for the creation of a “social movement” to demand an end to the war. He claims that the war happened in Vietnam is a defense of freedom, the United States seizing the destinies of the Vietnamese people and using them callously for its own purpose. But in the meantime, millions of people in the south of the United States were excluded from the mainstream and promise of American society. Potter claim about the terrible bureaucracies and people needs to change the institutions in the United States. Potter wants the social movement which is for people who are willing to change their lives, who are willing to challenge the system, to make the country understand that the real problems were not in the Asian or other countries but the United States.   This speech is important because SDS was the most important influence student organizing, it represented the voice of the young generation. It organized lots of marches and had a big impact on drafting age, it also made the government lower the voting age to 18 years old. Potter’s speech influence among the student which they represent the future of United States. The way they protest against the war is to unite the student to put pressure on the government and let the society hear the voice of the young generation.   The best-known incident for SDS was the Kent State Shooting. “Four Kent State University students were killed and nine were injured on May 4, 1970” (Kifner 1970). The members of Ohio National Guard opened fire on a group of students that was protesting the Vietnam war  at lobbing tear gas at a crowd of about 1,000 young people. One of the Ohio National Guard member claim that “The troops had opened fire after they were shot at by a sniper” (Kifner 1970). But one of the reporter who was with the group of students claim that “he did not see nay indication of sniper fire, nor was the sound of any gunfire audible before the Guard volley” (Kifner 1970). Anyhow the incident was a miserable tragedy that had a big impact on society. The President Nixon made a statement on the incident “It is my hope that this tragic and unfortunate incident will strengthen the determination of all the nation’s campuses…which exists in this country of peaceful dissent and just as strong against the resort to violence as a means of such expression” (Kifner 1970). Just as the President Nixon said the incident actually brings the strengthen to the public, the Kent States Shootings escalated the protests and leads to over 400 colleges and universities cancelled classes for the rest of the year on their campuses.  The Kent State shooting is important because it was the watershed for the Anti-war movement in the society of United States. It leads to a shifted on the public opinion against the war in Vietnam, public does not like Vietnam War but they did not support the anti-war movement either due to the patriotism among most of American citizens; But the incident happened in Kent State was like a alarm bell, it reminded people why they needs to support the anti-war movement. President Nixon had to withdrew U.S military invasion of Cambodia and the social pressure in every level of the society was pushing on him; finally, he ended presidency at 1974. The Kent State Shooting incident had significance impact on ending the war, it also effect on reduced voting age from 21 to 18 in the United States for the first time. Even thought the movement of students were the most violent act, it still shows the power of U.S students, and how they played a indispensable role in Anti-war movement.  Conclusion The Vietnam War divided the society and families in the Untied States, it also cause various tragedy either in the United States or in the battleground at Vietnam. People in every levels fought their best to anti the war, anti-war movement somehow became another war itself. The anti-war movement on Vietnam had huge impact on the United States policy or culture present day. The impact which shows the voice of the United States  young generation, it was the first time the massive younger group move into politics. They shows the government and society about how important their voice was, and it made young generation stared took place on the political. Also because of the Kent States Incident, people became worried about the powers that government had; and that incident is the key why people stop trusting the government and starting support anti-war movement. The movement also separate the American society for then and now, it made two different group which were “Silent Majority” and “Vocal Minority”. Which one stands for only American perspective and one stands for more international perspective. The anti-war movement also made a effort on lower the voting age to 18  years old, which made solders could actually vote for their leader before going to the war.  The world needs everyone’s cooperates to be better, to be able to do that, everyone needs to comprehend other’s belief, perspective, thoughts. Every one should be free to believe in any thing and chose to be whoever they want under the moral principle, not matter they are communism or socialism. Everyone fight for their own perspective, therefore it is important to learn to adopt different opinions. Nowadays, except anti-war, people should know how to avoid the war first.  

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