New historicism and cultural materialism are devoted to the

New historicism and cultural materialism are devoted to the process of renewal of our past, past review images. They carry out this work for a variety of purposes: new historicism aims to show that every epoch or period has its own conceptual and ideological structures that people of the past have not understood concepts such as “the individual,” “God,” “reality,” or “genre” in the same way we do it now; cultural materialism wants to show that our political and ideological systems manipulate images and texts of the past to serve their interests and that these images and texts can be interpreted by radically different alternatives that are often constructed by placing those images or texts in their historical contexts . In this chapter, I want to argue that both new historicism and cultural materialism are concerned at the beginning of the concept of “difference”, both historical and cultural and that this concept becomes important in explaining how both critical practices have changed in last years. In the 1980s, both were interested in emphasizing the extent to which the past differs from the contemporary uses of the past, to what extent the past is alien or “different” from our modern episteme and, borrowing from Foucault and Geertz, new historians and cultural materialists were at the same time aware of the structural similarities between this historical difference and the cultural differences emphasized by postcolonial critics, feminists, homosexual theorists, and race theorists.In his “Historical Text as a Literary Artifact”, Hayden White perceives fiction as a lingual written statement in prose that has a development of events in a way that gives them coherence and understanding. Hayden White considers narrative as a complex of events distributed in a sequence of times verbally organized so as to create a gradual development of events in a comprehensible way. Other philosophers who preceded Hayden White have already stressed that fiction gives coherence to historical events, but Hayden White was the first to suggest the importance of its prose structure. In “The Historical Text as a Literary Artifact”, Hayden White argues that the same series of chronological events could be talked about in different ways by emphasizing the different parts of the series of events, an action that calls “emplotment.” Hayden White does not mean with this interference or change in the order of historical events in historical narrative, but simply with a different construction of the same series of events, considering essentially literary conventions and through the different emphasis of different events. Hayden White lists four main types of plots, tragedy, satire, comedy, and romance.

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