Stereochemistry they are not able to be superimposed which

 Stereochemistry is the study of how molecules are
structured in three dimensions. Chirality is a unique subset of
stereochemistry, and the term chiral is used to designate a molecule that has a
center or centers of three-dimensional asymmetry. This kind of molecular configuration
is almost always a function of the unique, tetrahedral bonding characteristics
of the carbon atom. (Stoelting’s. Pharmacology and Physiology for
Anesthetic Practice, 5th edition, 2014 pp38)

I have come to understand that Chirality means that
just like our hands are mirrored images of one another but, they are not able
to be superimposed which basically means that I can put one hand on top of the
other one and they are not the same. They might look identical but if I put my
right hand on top of the left the hn will be in an opposite position. When it
is said that molecules are chiral, it means that they are not the same. They
will look alike but they are not the same. Now that we understand what
chirality means now I will be explaining what an Enantiomer is. An Enantiomer
is a molecule that chiral, which means that physically they have the opposite
shape and chemically they are identical. The way we distinguish, and enantiomer
is by direction. The direction can be seen when the molecules are dissolved in
a solution. The two directions that the enantiomers go in are clockwise which
is called dextrorotary or counterclockwise which is called levorotary.

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   It is
important for Anesthesia providers to understand Chirality considering that
there is a great number of synthetic agents or drugs that are used in the
anesthesia practice that are chiral drugs. 
I am now going to be describing a terminology which is Racemic Mixture
that is defined as a solution that has both enantiomers of a compound in the
same amounts. A racemic mixture can be expressed as 50;50 which means that the
compound is equal amounts or proportions. According to our text book (Shubert D and Leyba J. Chemistry and Physics for nurse
anesthesia: a student-centered approach. New York: Springer 2013 pp351) A
racemic mixture contains equal amounts of the (+) enantiomer and the (-) enantiomer
and has a designation (+/-).  The text
book also states that Racemic mixtures are not optically active because the
rotation of the dextrorotary enantiomer cancels out the rotation of the
levorotatory enantiomers.

During my first semester of Advanced Pharmacology
class I encountered various examples of medications that chirality can be
observed. In my pharmacology class we learned about the clinical aspects of
chirality. According to (Stoelting’s. Pharmacology and Physiology for
Anesthetic Practice, 5th edition, 2014 pp40) some drugs that are administered
as racemic mixtures are thiopental, methohexital, and ketamine. The majority of
inhaled anesthetics are chiral. Ketamine is a drug that is used mainly for its
intense analgesia effects and produces a prompt induction.  As an example of a medication that is
administered as a Racemic mixture and as a single isomer. The left handed
optical isomer of ketamine is designated S(+) ketamine and the right handed
isomer is designated R(-) ketamine. The racemic form of ketamine is the most
frequently used but the S(+) isomer is clinically available and has several
benefits like producing more intense analgesia, more rapid metabolism and
recovery, less salivation and a lower incidence of emergence reactions when
compared to the R(-) isomer.



Stereochemistry is a very important study in the
pharmaceutical industry as well as for clinical providers such as anesthetist. I
enjoyed researching this assignment and expanding my knowledge towards this very
important and interesting topic. The development of new Chiral separations is a
topic that will continue to be researched and experimented to continue creating
stronger and better medications for the benefit of our patients and the safety
of all. It can be seen as a very serious topic because some drugs are still
safer and better to be administered as racemates because they have more
therapeutic advantages than single isomers. Our decision should ultimately be
that the medication that we administer our patients be the safest with the best
postoperative outcome     









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