is a communicable disease which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
bacteria. Causes lesions in the lungs known as tubercles. It influences lungs
in 80 percentage cases. However, it also can affect other body parts such as,
abdominal cavity, joints, meninges, female reproductive organs, skin. Proper
treatment and medication can treat, prevent and cure TB.
Microbiologist Robert Koch identified tuberculosis(TB) in 1882. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
bacteria is the cause of TB which is founded in both humans and animals. It
causes lesions in the lungs which is known as tubercles (Aldridge, 2016). TB is infectious disease. However, It can be treat,
prevent and cured.
TB affects one-third of the worlds population. It is the
most leading cause of death and second leading cause of death from infectious
disease worldwide. In 2013, 9 million new cases of TB were reported. The case
detection rate was around 64% because around 3.3 million people who affected
from TB was undiagnosed or not reported. Meanwhile,
1.1 million people were estimated to have tuberculosis- human immunodeficiency
virus (HIV) co-infection (Dheda, Barry & Maartens, 2016). TB is patent in Africa
and Asia because 86% of TB cases reported in these area (Kakchapati, Gyawali,
Jha &Choonpradub, 2012). Inadequate treatment or irregular medication of TB
can develop Multidrug-resistance TB(MDR-TB). Resistance to both isoniazid and
rifampicin is known as MDR-TB. Morbidity and mortality rate of MDR-TB is higher
than other TB (Kakchapati et al., 2012).
Types of TB
90% people infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
bacteria remains asymptomatic and they can not spread an infection to others
known as latent infection (Zumla, Raviglione, Hafner & Reyn, 2013). Approximately
10% of latent infection can breakthrough active infection if not treated properly
on time. active infection develops symptoms and can transmitted to others as
well. In the basis of human organs there are another two types of tuberculosis,
pulmonary and extra pulmonary TB. the lungs is affected in pulmonary TB. TB
which affects others parts such as, skin, female reproductive organs, meninges,
abdominal cavity is known as extra pulmonary TB. About 85% of diagnosed cases
of TB is pulmonary and 15%of TB is extra pulmonary.
mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria is the
main cause of TB. It can be transmitted by droplet, when infected person exhales,cough,
sneeze and laughs, the bacilli released
into the air. If the healthy person inhales the air they can infected. On the
other hand, in compare with other infectious diseases it advised less
infectious (Cooper, odle &Frey, 2014). There are many factors which may
increase the risk of TB. They are homelessness, malnutrition, overcrowding, the
presence of HTV.
Although, more than 90% of people infected by
M. tuberculosis they remain asymptomatic which is known as latent TB. Despite, active
pulmonary TB have symptoms like, chronic cough, sputum production, appetite
loss, weight loss, weakness, fever, night sweats and hemoptysis (Zumla et al.,2013).
Fluid may collect in pleural cavity which is known as pleural effusion may
cause difficulty in breathing and shortness of breathing and also recurrent
cough for weeks to months (Cooper et al., 2014).
The tuberculin skin test and the interferon-gamma
release assay can use for diagnosis of latent infection and risk groups.
However, these test is not suitable for the patient who have active TB (Zumla
et al., 2013). The culture and sputum microscopy is standard methods to
diagnose active TB (Zumla et al., 2013).
There are various drugs which is used to treat
TB. They are Isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide. These drugs are
using to treat TB but it differs for latent and active Tb as well as multi drug
resistant TB. Person who is suffering from latent Tb and have increased risk to
developed active TB they required preventive treatment. In latent phase
isoniazid 300mg daily given for six months and recommended to continue until
nine months if its co infected with HIV infection. Directly observed therapy (DOT)
is used to control MDR-TB by tuberculosis control programmers which helps to
decrease the number of defaulting therapy (Dheda, 2016). MDR-TB needed
prolonged treatment compare to other TB.
Generally, Bacille-Calmette-Guérin (BCG)
vaccine is used to prevent from TB. BCG is one of the most effective method to
prevent TB during childhood. People infected with HIV a lives in high burden
area with unknown result of tuberculin test and with out active TB recommended
to have isoniazid for at least 6 months as preventive therapy (Zumla et al., 2013). In addition, there are various preventive
measures of TB. Regular screening program in high risk area, avoid overcrowd
and maintain hygiene also can help to prevent TB.