THE 4Ps model concentrates on internal orientation, that is

MIX – 4Ps

Product is referred to as a physical object
that is sold and has tangible characteristics, a set of benefits that meet
customer needs. Price composes of issues of list prices, discounts, repayment
tern and condition and credits. The price determines the level of product
benefits. It is the only element that does not include costs charged to
customers to purchase a product they take. Moreover, promotion tackles the
issues such as personal selling, sales promotion, advertising, direct marking
and public relations. It also deals with the distribution channels how an
organization can optimize their connections between both inner and outer
channels. While the place in the marketing mix serves as tackling the issues
such as distribution channels, distribution sites, market coverage, product
inventory and transportation (Pour, et al. 2013).

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Defining more specific marketing levers, a
plethora of studies find new paradigm for operative marketing – surpassing the
4Ps. A paper called “revisionist” that proclaims the need for
reconceptualization (Gandolfo,2009).  The
argument presented is that the 4Ps model concentrates on internal orientation, that
is the model is internally oriented whereby this limitless leads to the paucity
of customer orientation. Hence, leads to the inadequate focus on relationship
with customer. According to Schultz (2001) that is referenced in
(Gandolfo,2009), he reported that in today’s marketplace, there is a need for a
new paradigm that focuses on external orientation which considers network
system view. The common factor in all the “revisionist” electronic-marketing
mix works investigated a need for more explicit customer orientation.


In the past, the concept of the 4Ps of
marketing mix has confronted criticism. It is reported the concept
implementation is kept in people and organization hands, resulting in
disintegration of the 4 factors due to functioning limited to distinct units of
the organization. The marketing mix concept suggested that the 4Ps are equal in
an equal-based manner, while a myriad of papers reported that the factors vary
in their importance to any organization. For instance, the product price being
the importance focus to many organizations. It is worth noting that the
marketing mix has been also criticized of being production-oriented rather than
customer-oriented – having said that the customers regarded as passive, hence
limiting its applicability particularly in today’s business world environment
that the customer is the king (Misra, 2015)

A numerous of authors that referenced in Chai
(2009) plainly criticized the concept of 4Ps. Udell (1968) said sales is rated
the most important, followed by product, pricing and distribution while LaLonde
(1977) stated that product to be the most important followed by distribution,
pricing and promotion. Perreault and Russ (1976) reported the quality of
product to be the most important, followed by distribution and pricing.
McDaniel and Hise (1984) claimed that the CEOs see pricing and product to be
more important than place and promotion. Kurtz and Boone (1987) undertook a
research among business persons and found out that the order of the marketing
mix concept to be price, product, distribution and promotion. Therefore, it
shows form a plethora of studies that marketing experts and business executives
do not view the 4Ps as equally vital, however, they mostly have a common
agreement that price and product to be the most important.


The markets use many tools in order to receive
favorable responses from their markets. The tools include the marketing mix. It
is worth noting that the tools used to accomplish the marketing goals in which
they are ubiquitously known as 4Ps. The consumers and commercial channels are
affected by the decision about future marketing. It is reported that due to the
time needs concerning the number of variables of the marketing mix that
institutions decide; a small change is resulted in a short run period. As the
goal of the marketing mix is to make the products sellable and make profit,
then the consumer perspective is worthwhile to take into consideration. the
perspective of a consumer is different from of marketing perspective. That is,
the way marketers see 4Ps, is 4Cs in the view of the customer. The 4Cs
encompasses customer value, cost, convenience and communication, respectively.
In order to meet the needs of the consumer, institutions ought to make their
products economical; considering comfort, communication and convenience.
Institutions also should take into consideration the consumers’ interest and
desire for the product and charge less. The products should benefit the
purchaser. The product price to commensurate the buyer’s financial
capabilities, that is the product to be affordable in consumer’s view.
Availability of the product is vital, having said this that the product to be
available in the stock whenever the customer needs to buy. Moreover, the
promotion to be possible in order to seek attention of new customers and
potential consumers. For marketing managers, it is better to think of the
customers’ view (4Cs) and then marketers view (4Ps), reported Gholipour (2009)
cited in Azizi (2013)


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