The is mainly the use of machinery to achieve

The industrial revolution was a period in history, which is
widely recognised as having occurred from around 1760 to 1840.  Having spent the previous period focusing on
agriculture (i.e. the land and farming), society began to discover the industry.  The industry is mainly the use of machinery
to achieve produce.  For example, the
production of textiles and clothing surged, as there were new found technologies
of mass production for such items.  The
industrial revolution also brought about the increased activity of trains,
allowing people to travel further and to communicate further afield than they
ever had before.

A factor widely contributed to the development of the art
movement during this period was the advancement of science, and therefore the
invention of photography.  Although photography
was not like we know it today – no digital cameras in sight – artists all over
were now able to capture images which could then be used in their art, as
opposed to having to sit and paint or draw from their own memories.  However, it was not until late in the industrial
revolution that the possibility of multiple copies of photographs arose, due to
the creation of (what is now known as) the “Daguerreotype
Process”.  This drew down on
advancements in science by using iodine and bromine to sensitize the
mirror-style plate to light, which was then transported via a light-proof box
into the camera, where it is exposed to the light.  This leaves an imprint of the image on the
plate, which can then be developed (originally by placing the image over a hot
mercury solution).   

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This development of photograph led to the development of
art during the industrial movement.  It
allowed individuals to capture scenes of nature, beauty, people, and more, immediately,
allowing artists to capture fleeting moments more readily.  Due to the increased train accessibility,
artists could also travel further to paint their scenery, and provide paintings
of places that not necessarily everyone would have access to.  This was especially applicable to those who
could not afford to travel, so had perhaps only seen the city in which they
lived.

During the revolution, there were three largely popular
movements that reflected the huge changes society was undergoing: Romanticism, Realism
and Impressionism.  They were reactions
to the feelings of society at the time and allowed expression of those emotions
that people did not necessarily vocalise.  The movement of romanticism led to both Realism
and Impressionism – both leading society and artists out of the industrial
revolution.

Romanticism can be said to have allowed society at that
time to escape the seriousness that was quite often around, and to express the
inspiration and subjectivity that an individual could have during the
revolution period.  Mary Shelley, an
author, published the story of Frankenstein during this period, which
romanticises the love that a monster has for its creator, Victor Frankenstein,
and other people involved in Victor’s life. 
It romanticised the ideas of death and murder and had a similar concept
of many artists during the industrial revolution.  For example, JMW Turner, a British artist who
was ??? during the time of the revolution, famously painted the ‘Modern Rome – Campo Vaccino’ in 1839,
which aimed to capture the central city of Rome under a hazy, shimmering light
– a romanticised view of what is, essentially, ruins.

Romantic painting largely used naturalism, yet unique, unfamiliar
subjects and can to said to often express more emotional passion than previous
art movements. The art often acknowledged its artificial nature, as
brushstrokes might be obvious, or colours more bright and rich than in the
reality of the image. Watercolour works also began to become popular, helped by
high quality rag paper and the ease of carrying the pigments, rather than the
previous practice of sketching the image down and then returning to paint the
image from a studio – a practice helped by the creation of photography. 

The artistic movement of impressionism stemmed following
the industrial revolution and was the concept of artists using their own influences
on an image or photograph and allowed the artist to put their own spin on the
image.  Cameras allowed images to be
objective, so impressionism allowed artists to create new art using existing photographs
and to develop a unique style. 

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