The the risk of infertility among the women deficient

The manifestation of pregnancy in women is the coexisting high levels of both estrogen and progesterone which then suppress ovulation. During the onset of pregnancy, progesterone is now produce in the female’s placenta and the enriched endometrial lining becomes ready to receive a fertilized egg. High progesterone levels aggravate the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. On the other hand, low progesterone levels yield an irregular and almost unpredictable menstrual cycle. Among all the parts in the female reproductive system, progesterone does it works in a female young adult’s uterus during her period of menstruation. According Goldstein, what happens is that as the uterus thickens during this period of monthly blood discharge, one of its layers which is responsible for secreting mucus or the mucosal layer is protected. This identified as the young woman’s endometrium or the lining of the uterus. Considered as the major pregnancy hormone, (PR) or the progesterone receptor is responsible for mediating functions and reaffirm that progesterone is thus regulated. (Bazer & Spencer, 2002). If a woman experiences symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), these are also directly linked to the progesterone production. The aid in conception and pregnancy is furthered by progesterone levels which tends to rise in the second half of the menstrual cycle. A study by D. Goldstein et al. (1982) revealed that after ovulation, the tendency for a woman to go through the luteal phase is dependent on progesterone levels in the body. If a woman is already low in the hormone estradiol, conducting progesterone replacements therapies is not enough to counter the risk of infertility among the women deficient in the luteal phase, low in estradiol but high in progesterone levels. When the embryo attaches outside the uterus, tubal pregnancy results. This complication is further supported by low progesterone levels. A study by Matthews et al. (1986) and later on by Jaakola & Pulkkinen (1989) revealed that a woman undergoing normal pregnancy has serum progesterone levels greater than 20 ng/ml. If serum levels are approximately 15 ng/ml or lower, an ectopic pregnancy is likely to occur. Measured through electrophysiologic characteristics in the ovum, ectopic pregnancies are higher if there is a defect in the luteal phase and ovum retention in inactive sites is furthered by low progesterone.

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