The the study group setting is that through these

The use of Peer teaching has been an
integral part of human learning for centuries, involving participants of same
level of education who meet regularly to study a particular subject and then
report their findings or recommendations. 1 What happens in the study group
setting is that through these interaction dynamics, students could absorb the
lecture notes and make them their own. 2

The success of peer teaching is
thought to be connected to the ability of peer tutors and tutees to communicate
more effectively and, therefore, improve the learning environment. 1 Peer
teaching has been used in a variety of guises including peer-assisted learning,
team-based learning (TBL) and reciprocal peer teaching, and in many different
areas of health education and the biosciences. 3

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            Peer teaching aims to help to form a cooperative
environment that promotes active engagement of medical students in the learning
process during their anatomy lab sessions. 4,5 It doesn’t only create active
environment, but also provide students with opportunities to apply conceptual
knowledge through working in small groups, it’s considered as a highly
learner-centered 6 that requires pre-class preparation and implements
subsequent in-class team discussions.

It is based on rigorous team
interaction to accomplish both competence and the capability to generate new
knowledge. 7 Thus the use of peer teaching showed that students were forced
to study more consistently, provided regular feedback on their preparedness,
helped them develop higher reasoning skills, reinforced self-directed learning
and fostered an appreciation for peer respect. 8

According to Topping peer-assisted
learning promotes more active engagement by students in the learning process
and prevents them from leaving the course. 4 Peer teaching also helps
achieving mutual benefit as it enables tutees to learn both from the
preparation, tutor’s engagements and from the instructions that the tutees
receive. 9,10; peer tutors acquire positive attitudes toward learning, become
more confident in their ability to teach, communicate content and experience
the satisfaction of helping others. 11 The tutees also benefit from
peer-assisted learning, through the freedom of expressing their own opinions
and the ownership of the learning process. 4

Other benefits of peer teaching over
the other similar teaching protocols included building a stronger bond between
the students and the faculty members, positive attitude toward the subject,
gain in psychological well-being and financial efficiency as an alternant
rather than hiring more staff members. 12,9,13

The manner of peer teaching has
varied extensively and has included one-to-one teacher-tutee interactions,
group peer teaching, problem-based learning, or even peer-developed learning
materials. 14

Burgess  & Ramsey-Stewart in a study applied
situated cognition theory as a conceptual framework to explore students’
perceptions of their learning experience within an anatomy by whole body
dissection course (students are taught by surgeons), Students highlighted
opportunities to create and reinforce their own knowledge through active
participation in authentic dissection tasks; guidance and clinical context
provided by surgeons as supervisors; and the provision of an inclusive learning
community. 15

There is continuing debate
concerning the best way to teach anatomy, the world is now moving toward using
technology to help teaching anatomy hence the rapidly increasing technology
worldwide. Computer-assisted learning (CAL) is a possible option for teaching
anatomy. As a result of the development of excellent spatial resolution of
modern imaging techniques, imaging is increasingly available as computer
learning tools. CAL can be used to supplement current teaching methods, deliver
instructional material and is particularly useful in demonstrating topics which
are complex or relatively difficult to access when seen in the textbook or
cadaver. There are several attributes of CAL, similar to those provided by
dissection with the advantage that the learning could be tailored to the need
of the individual, can be used at the student’s pace and is always available
16. in a study that took place in Colombia to improve human anatomy learning
by combining team based learning (TBL) with the use of iPads showed that
student’s opinions were favourable to the use of TBL as a different way of
learning. The students found that working in groups improved their per-formance
in relation to the individual evaluations, the use of iPad applications
motivated their work during class, and self-assessment activities were
considered to be a useful tool for improving their knowledge 17.

Using cadavers as a tool of learning
instructs not only in structure and function, but also introduces medical
students to the basic language of medicine, learning in peer groups and how to
function as part of a team. 18,19.

Reciprocal Peer Teaching (RPT) wherein students alternate roles as
teacher and learner is a collaborative approach that embeds assessment in a
formalized learning pro-cess to facilitate student involvement with course
content and improve achievement. 12 Under this educational paradigm student
vary their roles being alternately charged with teaching their peers and then
being instructed in kind. 20,3

Although peer teaching was generally
successful, some students lack confidence being taught by other students, so
they prefer to learn by faculty staff. 21 Another disadvantage of peer
teaching was unreliable quality of teaching from peers. 22 Also, peer
teaching can mean a reduction of time with actual faculty staff. This is paired
with a fear of student-tutors’ difficulties in deeper discussions and a
challenge of student tutors’ competency in some cases as they have less
knowledge and less experience compared to usual staff. 23 A problem emerges
when the student-teachers imparted wrong information and when schools used peer
tutoring to justify a reduction in teaching staff. 24

Previous studies have reported no major disadvantages, and authors
were more likely to describe common pitfalls or necessary conditions like
proper guidelines or quality management. 23

            In conclusion, even
though group studying has many drawbacks such as; tutees lacking confidence in
being taught by other students, unreliable quality of teaching from peers, a
reduction of time with actual faculty staff, as well as, student-tutors’
difficulties in deeper discussions; there are far more benefits in team based
studying whether with faculty instructors or students alone as it aims to help
to form a cooperative environment that promotes active engagement of medical
students in the learning process during their anatomy lab sessions because
students become forced to study more consistently and get provided regular
feedback on their preparedness, helped develop higher reasoning skills, as well
as, reinforced to form self-directed learning. On the other perspective, peer
tutors acquire positive attitudes toward learning, become more confident in
their ability to teach and communicate content, and experience the satisfaction
of helping others.

The aim of this study is to explore the effectiveness of study
group in improving first year medical student’s learning performance in anatomy
lab in Jordan University.

The objective of this study is to know the degree of benefit of
study group in anatomy lab on the student’s learning performance because we
have in our faculty of medicine too many students, small labs, and few
instructors; which all raise the need for such study.

 

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