TMA 02All names mentioned in this document have been changed, following the guidelines of The British Educational Research Association (BERA, 2011) (cited in OU, 2017). All participants have confidentiality and anonymity.Part 1Inclusive practice is the concept of ensuring all children have the same learning experiences as one another, as well as having the same opportunities and participating in the same activities (Study topic 6, p153) . Despite any learning difficulties, or the background they come from they have the right to be included.The people who are involved with inclusive practice, within a primary school setting, are teachers, teaching assistants and other staff, pupils, parents and families (S.T 6, p. 155). Teaching assistants are involved with inclusive practice as they help the teacher to ensure all the needs of the children are being met. Inclusion should be seen as a process instead of as a result. In this process, schools aim to identify and eliminate the barriers and expand the participation between their pupils. The ‘Social Model’ is a theory that shows the relationship between inclusion being a process and barriers of participation are the views that create difficulties for pupils in schools (Booth and Ainscow, 2006, p. 6). The barriers can also prevent individuals and pupils from participating in their community, which is described as socially constructed. This means that the ideas have been developed by society. This theory has came from Tony Booth and Mel Ainscow who have suggested that inclusive practice is more effective as a steady process, rather than a transformation that has been hurried. (Booth and Ainscow, 2006)Part 2Vivi has Cerebral Palsy, and as a part of her condition she has trouble with her fine motor skills, which means certain muscles need to be strengthened (S.T 6, activity 6.4). As Vivi requires extra help, she receives one-to-one support with Sarah, the teaching assistant. Sarah has undergone training from the Mobility Society which Vivi is part of, this is because Sarah has never worked with a child/ children with Cerebral Palsy (S.T 6, activity 6.4). Sarah has a plan at the start of each week which she needs to follow, which means she works closely with the teacher to ensure Vivi’s plan fits in with the weekly class plans (S.T 6, activity 6.4).To help Vivi with her cursive handwriting, Sarah starts by having Vivi writing on a chalkboard, Ellie Jobson E103Personal Identifier: E7136298 TMA 02 as big motions are used and when she is able to complete the word on the chalkboard she then moves onto writing the word on paper, using smaller motions (S.T 6, activity 6.4). Every morning, before play time, Sarah helps Vivi with her exercises as she gets stiff muscles she needs to keep her heel to the floor and stretch her hamstrings down as a way to help her walk (S.T 6, activity 6.4). Sarah is there to include Vivi in the activities with the other children in her class. It is important that not only Vivi’s peers include her in the activities and play, but also that the school continues to support her when Sarah is no longer used to support Vivi. The Equality Act 2010 states that it is unlawful for a school, private and public or any other education provider to discriminate on past pupils, still with a relationship with the school, current pupils and even future pupils, based on protected characteristics, such as disability, race, religion or belief, sex, pregnancy and maternity (Equality Act, 2010). When a pupil is not treated as an equal or fair, because of something related to their disability or because of disability then this is direct discrimination (Equality Act, 2010). Fulbridge Academy has an Equality and Diversity policy in place which is used to ensure everyone is included and no-one is discriminated against. They work towards pupils with protected characteristics and pupils without building relationships and working together. Fulbridge also work towards reducing and eliminating the barriers meaning there is access to the curriculum and participation for pupils with disabilities. They follow the Disability Discrimination Act, 1995 and the SEN and Disability Act, 2001 (SENDA). Sarah is there to ensure that the school and pupils include Vivi and do not discriminate against her because of her disability, she removes the barriers to learning and participation for Vivi. By doing this, she is following the Equality Act 2010 and the Disability Discrimination Act 1995. Part 3Sarah plays an important role in supporting Vivi, Sarah works closely with Vivi’s teacher to combine Vivi’s personal plan with the class programme. I think that combining the plans is important because it allows Vivi to complete her classwork as well as being able to complete her exercises which strengthen her muscles and her personal plan which she needs to complete. It is important that she does these exercises as Vivi has stiff muscles, by doing so it will help Vivi walk and play with her peers. Vivi also receives support for her fine motor skills as this is part of her condition, meaning she is unable to make small movements with her wrists and hands. This means when the class are completing their cursive writing, it is best for Vivi to start by writing on a chalkboard so she can start by doing big motions, then Ellie Jobson E103Personal Identifier: E7136298 TMA 02 she moves on to paper with smaller motions. Vivi will most likely have an Education Health and Care plan (EHC), which is a legal document used to show the extra help a child will need, it describes the special education, health and social care needs in order to achieve what they want in life. Based on Vivi’s needs which will have been listed in this plan, resources need to be adapted, such as more manipulative and talk-based resources have been put in place. The classroom, and the school, would have also have to been moved around to ensure Vivi can move around with ease. Sarah received training from the mobility society that Vivi works with, this was extremely helpful for Sarah as she had never worked with a child with Cerebral Palsy before she worked with Vivi. I think it is important that Sarah received training from the same mobility society which Vivi is with, as it allows her to get to have a better understanding of Vivi resulting in a close bond between Sarah and Vivi. Sarah still works within the guidelines she was trained with as a teaching assistant, especially with the safeguarding, she will not allow Vivi to sit on her lap, instead she suggests for Vivi to sit close beside her. This does influence the way in which she supports Vivi as she does work with Vivi with a little bit of affection, but she remains within the safeguarding guidelines. Vivi is taught in a scaffolding way, she is shown and told how to complete the work, and then Sarah offers Vivi support as and when she needs it. This varies from helping Vivi guide her hand when following lines or when writing in cursive, to helping Vivi complete her exercises every morning. It is important that Sarah is teaching Vivi in this way, as by doing this she is building her confidence and allowing her to develop independence in appropriate situations.Vivi’s learning and development is supported in an inclusive way as Sarah is there to help make sure Vivi is included in all class activities with the other children. Sarah also focuses on how Vivi interacts with the other children and staff in the school, making sure Vivi is not being discriminated against because of her disability. Sarah helps to create a discussion around the work, helping to include Vivi with her peers. It is important that Vivi is educated within a mainstream setting where possible as this allows her to be in a classroom where all the children display age-appropriate behaviours. This is the main clause of full inclusion.All learners are different, this means that everyone requires special support. This support comes in many different forms, whether this be emotional, academic or physical support. Inclusive education is beneficial to all children as they are given the opportunity of developing new friendships with many different children. It can also help the children build their Ellie Jobson E103Personal Identifier: E7136298 TMA 02 confidence and become more independent, resulting in them achieving their goals in life (DfE, 2015).Vivi would receive support from a physiotherapist, who helps her with her muscle movements to prevent them from getting stiff. The support Vivi will receive from her physiotherapist is highly important because by helping Vivi with her muscle movements, she will be able to participate in more active activities with her peers in school. Vivi may also receive support from a special educational needs coordinator (SENCO). A SENCO would be responsible for working with the headteacher to make sure the school is following the Equality Act (2010). The SENCO also monitors how the school operates alongside the SEN policy. The SENCO is trying to make sure that Vivi is being included and to ensure the school is doing everything they can to suit her needs. They are also required to liaise with parents, therapists, doctors and other professionals within school to ensure that the school is effectively meeting the child’s needs and know about any changes that may adjust the support they put in place for her (DfE, 2015).Part 4Having support allows Vivi to feel more comfortable within the classroom. The support allows her to understand the topics covered in class, even if these are taught in a slightly different way. This is beneficial to Vivi as she is able to not let her disability get in the way of her learning. This support allows Vivi to participate in the activities and not have to be excluded, even if some activities need to be modified for Vivi to be able to complete. Children have to feel confident and feel as though they are in a safe learning environment. This is one in which all children’s thoughts are valued and took into consideration by both the teachers and the children. The support which Vivi has enables her to still carry out and take part in the same activities as her peers, this allows her to feel equal and not excluded from the class. There may be some children in Vivi’s class who does not understand why she requires the extra support, this may lead them to think that Vivi is not the same as them. This will need to be addressed by the teacher, and the class needs to understand that everyone, not just in the class, is equal. If certain staff within the school do not have the correct training, they may find it difficult to understand what support Vivi requires. Even though Sarah supports Vivi for two years, before someone else supports her so Vivi does not get too attached, Vivi still may become too attached to Sarah and may not achieve as much when Sarah is not around. For some activities, it may not be possible to find a way of supporting Vivi, which would make it difficult for her to complete the task. Therefore alternative activities may have to be put in Ellie Jobson E103Personal Identifier: E7136298 TMA 02 place.Part 5From writing this TMA, I have learned that it is important to support the needs of all children. There are many different approaches which teachers and support staff can take when supporting the needs of a child, for example they could adapt the activities so the child can still participate rather than being excluded by their peers for not being able to participate.Inclusive practice is the process of barriers being removed and expanding the participation between the children in a school. It ensures that all children have equal learning experiences, whether or not they require additional support. If a child requires additional support, then the school is required to provide the support. As a result of giving the child support, they are being included and can participate in all activities. Every child in school needs to be included, not just the children who have SEN. It is important that every child is being included and no child is being discriminated against, because of protected characteristics such as disability or race. Even though it is important for SEN children to be included, the other children also need to be included, not just low level or high level children need to be supported medium level children also need to be supported so no child is being excluded.Ellie Jobson E103Personal Identifier: E7136298 TMA 02 BibliographyCsie.org.uk. (2018). Equalities Act 2010. online Available at: http://www.csie.org.uk/inclusion/equalities-act-2010.shtml Accessed 10 Jan. 2018. Fulbridge Academy (2018). Accessibility PlanFulbridge Academy (2017). Policy for Equality and DiversityPublic Sector Equality Duty Statement. (2017). PDF Curiosity Confidence Courage Constancy. Available at: http://file:///home/chronos/u-0f6302db0b0e7aa5a1e91f4c5770ff0715683b5a/Downloads/f6460997.pdf Accessed 10 Jan. 2018.Department for Education, 2015. Special Educational Needs and Disability code of practice : 0 to 25 years.