Understanding the Creative Media Sector
The purpose of this report is providing young people an
informative background into the creative media industry. Making young people
aware about the creative options they have available around them is important
as it often gets overlooked by the more academicals industry (Medicine, Finance
This report looks into the following sections-
Sectors- This section will give a brief overview
of sectors that exist in the media industry.
Structure + ownership- This section will provide
explanations of terms and examples of how the industry works.
Ethical + Legal issues – This section will
contain information on the laws that have been set in place and the issues that
have been caused regarding the laws. It will also give explain and give
examples of ethical issue that have occurred in the industry.
Regulation + regulatory issues – This section
will provide information on how different sectors in the industry control or
give guidance to the media by using the government or other regulatory bodies.
in the media industry
Within a media sector there are approximately 10 types of
industries; television, radio, film, animation, interactive media, computer
games, publishing, press, photo-imaging, advertising and marketing. In
addition, media sectors have several types of ownership. Each company varies of
the type of ownership. Below I will explain the different sectors that exist.
This Is the most popular
form of entertainment in society today. In
the TV job market, there is a lot of competition with over 50,000 British
people employed. I have created a word map to show the different kinds of jobs
that exist in this sector, although these are just a few it gives an idea of
jobs available in the creative industry. TV broadcasts different types of
channels. In the UK, it is dominated by four main broadcasters along with
several smaller ones. The main broadcasters are- The BBC, ITV, Channel 4, and channel 5.
industry is one of the oldest media industries along with press, in comparison
to the current industries. Radio is a sound based media which transmits to
devices like cars. Over the recent years, radio media has been dying out, but
it can now be listened online as most radios have become digital. The radio
industry is split into 3 types of radios;
Publicly funded Radio – Funded by
the public, government or licence fees (EG BBC Radio 1 97.7)
Commercial Radio – Advert Funded and
are ran independently (EG Capital FM 105.4)
and Voluntary Radio – (EG Bush Radio 89.5) in recent years Ofcom, the UK
radio industry regulator have been trying to introduce more small community run
stations, to bring communities together and make people listen to local
stations instead of money making franchises. This has been successful
as in December 2017 Ofcom rewarded seven new community radio licences.
film industry is the largest and most profitable industry. It is a huge grossing
market as commercial films can make millions or even billions making an amazing
gross profit even after spending a lot of money on making and advertising. A
prime example of this can be given with the film Avatar. $237 million (USD) was
spent on the making and marketing of the film, however it made $2,787,965,087
(USD) at box office.
Paramount, universal, 21st century fox + Disney (now mergers)
are companies that dominate the film industry. The multimillion pound companies
usually create big blockbuster films, as they have bigger budgets to produce
TV and Film industries are connected as TV channels often play films. TV
broadcasters may also have certain channels dedicated to showing only films,
for instance, sky movies. Films are also advertised on TV.
The animation industry is largely relied on by many other industries;
TV, Film, Video Games, Interactive Media, Advertising and Marketing. It is used
as a technique in TV, adverts and film to produce shows and also for special
effects. Video games are based on this type of industry as it creates worlds
and characters which players then engross themselves into.
DreamWorks which is owned by paramount and Pixar owned by Disney are two
main animation companies. An example of a smaller animation company which is
also successful is Aardman Animations.
Interactive media is the content that users receive
when using digital based systems. Examples of interactive content is text, moving image,
animation, video, audio, and video games. This is used by nearly everyone, every
single day. The UK digital advertising market was worth 7.2 billion GBP in 2014.
This is growing rapidly year by year as mobile advertising is increasing too.
Many TV and Radio shows use apps twitter and Facebook or to take part in
the show. For example, the popular British reality show, I’m A Celebrity uses
an app made my ITV to get viewers to vote for constantans.
In the last ten years the computer game industry has grown rapidly and
has become more popular than ever. It has gained importance in gamers everyday
life instead of being a small activity that only some people took part in. It
is more profitable then the DVD industry.
The top five video gaming companies based on their 2016 releases are-
– Electronic Arts
– Square Enix
The publishing industry is based on producing and distributing text
based media. Examples of the media that is produced-
Publishing companies include- Co & Bear productions.
The press industry focuses on delivering news to the public or a
specific target audience. This includes news from the radio or TV (broadcasted)
and newspaper and magazines (print media). The most important role in this
industry is done by journalists who research and write reports for different
Top News broadcasters- BBC News, ITV News and Sky News.
Top Newspapers- The guardian, The
daily mail and the daily telegraph
Newspapers and news broadcasters have online websites which the public
can get involved with discussions and online polls. This connects the
interactive media sector and press.
Advertising and Marketing-
This industry runs through is the key to success of the all the other
media industries. The process of advertising and marketing is deciding what has
to happen to a product before it reaches the general public. Marketing is
analysing the current trends and statistics to work out when it is best to
release a product. Advertising companies use marketing, but advertising is a
form of media that companies use to persuade and encourage and audience to do
or get something.
In this section I will first explain the key terms that describe types
of ownership and structures in the industry. Following of from this I will research
and compare two companies (BBC + EMI) that have very different ownership and structure
Private Ownership –
When a company is owned privately by a person or a small group. Virgin
Media is an example of a privately-owned company. The company makes profit for
its shareholders as it is a publically traded company. The company makes profits
by charging a subscription fee for the service they provide and through advertisements.
Public Service media-
This is when a media company is funded by the public (tax payers). An example of a public owned
company is the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). This is a government
funded company in which the public pays through TV license.
Companies that operate in one or more countries globally are known and
multinational corporations. Some multinational companies are so large they are wealthier
than some small countries. An example of a multinational company is the News Corporation,
owned by Murdoch. This company holds many news channels and companies
worldwide, for example, Fox News (USA) and The Sun (UK).
Independent companies are free from any outside control and don’t have
larger business overlooking them. An example of this is ‘October films’ which
is and independent TV production company based in London and New York.
Corporations made up from several different businesses are known as a conglomerate.
They are usually very large or multinational companies. An example of this is
Sony Corps, as they consist of many businesses like Sony Entertainment, Sony Pictures,
Sony Music and several more.
Ethical and Legal
Ethical constraints are
rules that have been formed to protects everyone’s rights to be equal and follow
morals. They are different to legal constraints as the rules are not enforced
by the law. They are more guidelines that are considered to be followed to be
accepted within society.
Protecting the underage-
There are many rules and laws that protect underage kids from inappropriate
things. Watershed is an important ethical constraint, which has protected young
TV viewers for 54 years. This ultimately protects children from harmful
material on TV and Radio.
The watershed in the UK is between 9pm and 5;30am. During these hours
only shows can become more adult orientated containing violence, graphic or distressing
imagery and swearing. As it is not suitable for youngers otherwise. The BBC
website provides information that watershed does not mean that content can
switch abruptly, for example, from bed time stories for children to sexual
content. Personally, I agree with this as, this would be wrong as young pupils
still maybe around. The BBC state that the maturity of the programme should
change slowly and expose more adult themes gradually throughout the night.
Action is taken to the broadcasters by Ofcom if watershed is broken. Since
2003 Ofcom has taken action on 300+ occasions when unsuitable content is shown
An example of this is when Singer Rihanna’s S+M video was broadcasted at
11.25AM on channel WTF TV in 2011. The video contains ‘sexual bondage,
dominance and sadomasochism’. The case was argued back by WTF TV stating the
video did not ‘contain images of dominant/submissive practices in a
pornographic style’. The decision was then made to gather all music video
channels to attend a meeting and which issues new guidance’s on the issue.
One ethical concern throughout the film and TV industry is the representation
of gender. The media industries have to
be very careful in the way they present both genders making sure it is
appropriate and fair.
A big issue in the Film industry is the unbalance of gender ratios. In
recent years facts have shown that male actors take up almost 70% of names or
speaking roles in films. This raises many issues and campaigns have been
formed. For example, in 2015, the internet asked Hollywood to #FilmHerStory to
increase the roles of female in the male dominated industry. This hashtag went
viral over twitter.
In addition, not only are there a lack of actresses but the females who
do make it big still don’t receive as much recognition as the males. I researched
the highest paid actress and actors. Figures from 2017 shows that the highest
paid actress, Emma Stone earns $26 million (USD) a year, however, the highest
paid actor, Mark Wahlberg earns $68 million (USD). This is more than half as
much. This emphasis inequality in the film industry, showing men and women do
not get treated equally.
More social and ethical issues are formed with the stereotypical representation
of male dominance treating women as sexual object. A perfect example of this in
in any James Bond film. He treats women as a sexual desire and believes the
world revolves around him. In previous years when James Bond was first released
(1962) this kind of representation was not as critically viewed. However, in
recent years since female representation and roles in society is valued much
more. This can be seen as an issue and has be brought out many time not only
with James bond but throughout other films too. The feminist group society
challenges images of gender in films.