Worldwide in the various industries, and in a higher

Worldwide
 research is been conducted to assess the
efficacy of many  emerging thermal
technologies in the  food processes to
minimize the adverse  effects of thermal
conventional process, like ohmic heating (Jaeger et al., 2016), , pulsed electric field (Serrano et al., 2013), ultraviolet light
(Guneser & Yuceer, 2012), cold plasma (Mir et al., 2016), pulsed-light technology (Abida et al., 2014; Miller et al.,
2012), ultrasound (Chandrapala & Leong, 2014), ultra-high pressure
homogenization (Valsasina et al.,
2015) and high hydrostatic pressure (Yang et
al., 2012) .Consumers crave for food with better nutritional quality,  safe food  and use of greener technologies (Barba et al., 2016). The number of potential applications for supercritical
fluid extraction (SFE) continues to grow globally, which is verified through
the increase in patents deposited in the last few years. It is observed that
its application is already part of the present scenery, being mainly impelled
by the growing demand of high quality products demand and economy’s
globalization. Besides that, it also stands out in its use in the commerce of
pharmaceutical, food, chemical and cosmetic materials. The increase in the
application of this technology in the industrial area is mainly due to the
selectivity, facility and separation capacity that the technique allows in
obtaining a great number of organic compounds, of which many are impossible or
nonviable to extract through traditional processes, or those whose purification
needs high resolution columns, not always available in the national market,
thereby making the utilization very costly. The high utilization of organic
solvents in the different industrial processes, such as fat and oil extraction,
obtaining bioactive functional compounds, removal of heavy metals, polymer
processing, fuel production, among others, represent a globally discussed
issue, due to the harm caused to the environment. In light of this picture, in
1987, the Montreal Protocol was introduced, and in 1997 the Kyoto Protocol, which
had as the main objective to reduce or  eliminate the production cum utilization of
solvents that cause harm to the ozone layer (Herrero et al., 2010). The great interest of the scientific community and
the industrial sector  in supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is
directly related to the restrictions to the utilization  of organic solvents, both in  preparative processes of samples used in the
various industries, and in a higher ecological consciousness in the use of
different analysis methods involving extraction.

The  non thermal extraction technique  known as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE)
since its begining has been touted for its extraordinary performance (Hicks et al., 2016). Presently,
the utilization of supercritical
fluid extraction (SFE) is extensively applied not only to the food
and drug areas, but also in the areas of toxicology, chemistry, environment,
textile, petrochemical, polymers, among others (Nalawade et al., 2006). Immense  achievements in the area of
supercritical fluid technology over the past fifty years have upped  the extraction of natural plant materials
using this type of extraction and has been described as an environmentally
friendly technology (Herrero et al.,
2006). These natural sources could be microalgae, algae  or plants among others. Moreover, the aim  of this technique is the higher  selectivity, shorter times of extraction,
reduced pollution  and the usage of
nontoxic organic solvents (Wang & Weller, 2006). Supercritical fluid extraction
is based on some properties of the fluids, such as viscosity, diffusivity,density
and dielectric constant  and usually
involves modification of some conditions such as temperature and pressure to
attain a supercritical fluid  (Sihvonen et al., 1999).After attaining desired  conditions, a fluid is between  liquid  and gas as its viscosity is similar to that of
a gas and the density of supercritical fluid  is similar to that of liquid (Sihvonen et al.,1999; Wang et al., 2008). So, the supercritical state of a fluid is the state
in which  gas and liquid  are identical from each other (Wan &
Weller 2006).Moreover supercritical fluids possess enhanced transport properties
than liquids because this property 
depends on the density  unlike
liquid solvents, is adjustable by changing  temperature and pressure (Sihvonen &
others 1999; Herrero & others 2006). 

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now
x

Hi!
I'm Mack!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out